Plant regeneration from protoplasts isolated from embryogenic calli of the forage legume Astragalus melilotoides Pall.
ABSTRACT An efficient and reproducible protocol is described for the regeneration of Astragalus melilotoides protoplasts isolated from hypocotyl-derived embryogenic calli. Maximum protoplast yield (11.74 +/- 0.6x10(5)/g FW) and viability (87.07 +/- 2.8%) were achieved using a mixture of 2% (w/v) Cellulase Onozuka R10, 0.5% (w/v) Cellulase Onozuka RS, 0.5% (w/v) Macerozyme R10, 0.5% (w/v) Hemicellulase, and 1% (w/v) Pectinase, all dissolved in a cell protoplast wash (CPW) salt solution with 13% (w/v) sorbitol. First divisions occurred 3-7 days following culture initiation. The highest division frequency (9.86 +/- 0.68%) and plating efficiency (1.68 +/- 0.05%) were obtained in solid-liquid medium (KM8P) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.2 mg/l kinetin, 0.2 M glucose, 0.3 M mannitol and 500 mg/l casein hydrolysate. Upon transfer to MS medium with 0.5 mg/l alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid and 1-2 mg/l BA, the protoplast-derived calli produced plantlets via somatic embryogenesis (56.3 +/- 4.1%) and organogenesis (21.6 +/- 0.6%). Somatic embryos or adventitious shoots developed into well-rooted plantlets on MS medium without any plant growth regulators or supplemented with 3.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid, respectively. About 81% of the regenerants survived in soil, and all were normal with respect to morphology and growth characters.