Article

The evolution of recombination under domestication: a test of two hypotheses.

Department of Genetics, Life Sciences Building, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 30602, USA.
The American Naturalist (Impact Factor: 4.55). 02/2004; 163(1):105-12. DOI: 10.1086/380606
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The successful domestication of wild plants has been one of the most important human accomplishments of the last 10,000 yr. Though our empirical knowledge of the genetic mechanisms of plant domestication is still relatively limited, there exists a large body of theory that offers a host of hypotheses on the genetics of domestication. Two of these that have not been addressed concern the role of recombination in the process of domestication. The first predicts an increase in recombination rate through domestication, while the second argues that recombination rate should serve as a preadaptation to domestication. This study makes use of data on chiasma frequencies available from almost a century of plant cytogenetical literature to test these two hypotheses. The results support the hypothesis that domestication selects for an increase in recombination, and in rejecting the preadaptation hypothesis, they suggest directions for future research into the possibility of preadaptation to domestication.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
61 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Domestication can influence many functional traits in plants, from overall life-history and growth form to wood density and cell wall ultrastructure. Such changes can increase fitness of the domesticate in agricultural environments but may negatively affect survival in the wild. We studied effects of domestication on stem biomechanics in manioc by comparing domesticated and ancestral wild taxa from two different regions of greater Amazonia. We compared mechanical properties, tissue organisation and wood characteristics including microfibril angles in both wild and domesticated plants, each growing in two different habitats (forest or savannah) and varying in growth form (shrub or liana). Wild taxa grew as shrubs in open savannah but as lianas in overgrown and forested habitats. Growth form plasticity was retained in domesticated manioc. However, stems of the domesticate showed brittle failure. Wild plants differed in mechanical architecture between shrub and liana phenotypes, a difference that diminished between shrubs and lianas of the domesticate. Stems of wild plants were generally stiffer, failed at higher bending stresses and were less prone to brittle fracture compared with shrub and liana phenotypes of the domesticate. Biomechanical differences between stems of wild and domesticated plants were mainly due to changes in wood density and cellulose microfibril angle rather than changes in secondary growth or tissue geometry. Domestication did not significantly modify "large-scale" trait development or growth form plasticity, since both wild and domesticated manioc can develop as shrubs or lianas. However, "finer-scale" developmental traits crucial to mechanical stability and thus ecological success of the plant were significantly modified. This profoundly influenced the likelihood of brittle failure, particularly in long climbing stems, thereby also influencing the survival of the domesticate in natural situations vulnerable to mechanical perturbation. We discuss the different selective pressures that could explain evolutionary modifications of stem biomechanical properties under domestication in manioc.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74727. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The holocentric structure promotes chromosome rearrangements by fission, fusion, translocation, and inversion, which have been thought to promote differentiation and speciation. The Carex laevigata group (Cyperaceae) comprises four species: two restricted endemics from the western Mediterranean (Carex camposii, 2n = 72, and Carex paulo-vargasii, 2n = 74–75), and two more widespread species, found mostly in Western Europe (C. laevigata, 2n = 69–84, and Carex binervis, 2n = 72–74). We tested the selection for chromosome number by climatic variables by controlling for the non-independence of the data using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). We obtained chromosome counts as well as DNA sequences for the 5′ trnK intron and the trnV-ndhC intergenic spacer in the chloroplast genome from 181 individuals from 53 populations representing these four species. We also climatically characterized the sites where the 53 populations were found using the WorldClim database. Our results show that the best predictor of chromosome number variation is the climatic environment rather than neutral evolutionary processes like founder events and migration patterns. These results support the adaptive value of the holocentric chromosomes and their role in promoting differentiation and eventually speciation.
    Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 01/2013; 15:118-129. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1 I. 1 II. 3 III. 5 IV. 8 V. 9 10 References 10 SUMMARY: A compound hypothesis positing that self-fertilization is an evolutionary dead end conflates two distinct claims: the transition from outcrossing to selfing is unidirectional; and the diversification rate, or the balance of the speciation and extinction rate, is negative for selfing species. Both claims have enjoyed widespread informal support for decades, but have recently come under suspicion. Sources of data that apparently contradict strongly asymmetric mating system transitions often rely on statistical phylogenetic tests plagued by profound flaws. Although recently developed models mend preceding approaches, they have been employed sparingly, and many problems remain. Theoretical investigations, genetic data and applications of new phylogenetic methods provide indirect support for an association of selfing with negative diversification rates. We lack direct tests of reversals from selfing to outcrossing, and require data concerning the genetic basis and complexity of independently evolved outcrossing adaptations. The identification of the mechanisms that limit the longevity of selfing lineages has been difficult. Limitations may include brief and variable durations of selfing lineages, as well as ongoing difficulties in relating additive genetic and nucleotide variation. Furthermore, a common line of evidence for the stability of mixed mating - based simply on its frequent occurrence - is misleading. We make specific suggestions for research programs that aim to provide a richer understanding of mating system evolution and seriously challenge Stebbins' venerable hypothesis.
    New Phytologist 02/2013; · 6.74 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
5 Downloads
Available from
Jun 6, 2014