Qualitative Content Analysis in Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures and Measures to Achieve Trustworthiness

Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
Nurse Education Today (Impact Factor: 1.36). 03/2004; 24(2):105-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001
Source: PubMed


Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.

Download full-text


Available from: Ulla H Graneheim,
  • Source
    • "The results of this study were obtained applying a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) process based on the known guidelines (Kitchenham et al., 2009; Stapicét al., 2012). Qualitative content analysis techniques (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004; Onwuegbuzie et al., 2012) were also used as complementary approaches to extract qualitative evidences from literature. In this study, old publications and bibliometric indicators (e.g., authors' affiliation, and number of citations) were discarded from analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 3D3C worlds can constitute versatile and inexpensive solutions for collaborative learning and training. The embodied human interaction around virtual objects supports a set of activities, enriching the way people learn, work and socialize via graphical representations, and also using features such as Internet browsing, instant messaging, and online voice chat. Nevertheless, research on 3D virtual environments for online education and training identified a set of challenges which include but are not limited to a lack of institutional support, standardization, evaluation methods for measuring learning outcomes, integration between virtual learning environments and virtual worlds, and support for healthy aging and people with special needs. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of 3D3C worlds’ challenges and opportunities by updating the literature with a qualitative analysis covering 49 publications (2006–2014). The meta-review includes a research agenda based on 161 condensed meaning units.
    Handbook on 3D3C Platforms, Edited by Yesha Sivan, 01/2016: pages 403-440; Springer International Publishing., ISBN: 978-3-319-22040-6
  • Source
    • "Codes were based on meaning extracted from the participants' descriptions. The meanings were later classified based on the discovered differences or similarities (Behboodi et al., 2013; Graneheim & Lundman, 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Youth is defined as the time of transition into adulthood and an important period in a person's life. During this period new behavior is learned easier than adulthood. Therefore, special attention has to be necessarily paid to this period in order to promote the health. Addressing adolescent reproductive health issues is also a critical factor This research was a qualitative study conducted from January 2014 to July 2014. Data from focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with 25 female students and 10 key members of the university (including university authorities, consultants, reproductive health professionals and university officials) was collected and all interviews were recorded, formulated and classified. The mean age of participants was 22.43 years. A total of 8 students majored in geology, 5 majored in chemistry, 3 in statistics, 3 in mathematics, and 6 in biology. 17 had a bachelor's degree, 3 master's degree and 5 doctorate degree. Majority of students (82.4%) were never married and 23 of them lived in dormitories. The following three main themes were extracted from the interviews: Reproduction thought as pregnancy; the taboo of sex; and inappropriate relation between parents and children. Most participants stressed the need to provide reproductive health services for young girls.
    Global journal of health science 12/2015; 7(4). DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p278
  • Source
    • "The transcriptions of the empirical data consisted of 152 pages (typeface Calibri, 12 pt, single spaced, with margins of 2.5 cm on all sides). The analysis process took its point 1032 JHOM 29,7 of departure in the purpose of the study and the data were analysed using qualitative and interpretative latent content analysis (Graneheim and Lundman, 2004). The first step in the process of analysis involved reading and re-reading the interview texts to obtain an overview of the interviews and to apprehend the meaning of what was said. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish a knowledge bank for the development of overall hospital processes. Description and analysis are used to show how process managers experience their situation and the various possibilities it offers for active management in the context of managing processes of inpatient care and treatment at Swedish hospitals. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative and explorative design with open-ended interviews with 12 process managers at three Swedish hospitals was used. Transcribed interviews were analysed by means of latent content analysis. Findings – The two main categories emerging from the analysis were characteristics of process leadership and prerequisites of process management. Quality, relational and knowledge dimensions, and structure, time and information dimensions emerged as their respective sub-categories. The overall theme describes the interdependence between leadership characteristics and the prerequisites necessary for effective process management. Research limitations/implications – No generalizations could be made from the results of the qualitative interview studies but a deeper understanding of the phenomenon was reached, which in turn can be transferred to similar settings. Originality/value – This study contributes qualitative descriptions of leadership characteristics and the prerequisites necessary for active process management in the context of managing processes of inpatient care and treatment at Swedish hospitals, a subject that has not been investigated earlier.
    Journal of Health Organisation and Management 11/2015; 29(7):1029 - 1046. · 0.36 Impact Factor
Show more