Neuronal differentiation following transplantation of expanded mouse neurosphere cultures derived from different embryonic forebrain regions.
ABSTRACT In vitro, expanded neurospheres exhibit multipotent properties and can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In vivo, cells from neurospheres derived from mouse fetal forebrain have previously been reported to predominantly differentiate into glial cells, and not into neurons. Here we isolated stem/progenitor cells from E13.5 lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE), medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and cortical primordium, of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-actin transgenic mouse. Free-floating neurospheres were expanded in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and implanted after five to six passages into the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of neonatal rats. Cell suspensions of primary LGE tissue were prepared and grafted in parallel. Grafted cells derived from the primary tissue displayed widespread incorporation into all regions, as visualized with the mouse-specific antibody M2, or mouse satellite DNA in situ hybridization, and differentiated into both neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Grafts of neurosphere cells derived from the LGE, MGE and cortical primordium differentiated primarily into astrocytes, but contained low but significant numbers of GFP-immunoreactive neurons. Neurons derived from LGE neurospheres were of three types: cells with the morphology of medium-sized densely spiny projection neurons in the striatum; cells with interneuron-like morphologies in striatum, cortex and hippocampus; and cells integrating into SVZ and migrating along the RMS to the olfactory bulb. MGE- or cortical primordium-derived neurospheres differentiated into interneuron-like cells in both striatum and hippocampus. The results demonstrate the ability of in vitro expanded neural stem/progenitor cells to generate both neurons and glia after transplantation into neonatal recipients, and differentiate in a region-specific manner into mature neurons with morphological features characteristic for each target site.
Article: New striatal neurons in a mouse model of progressive striatal degeneration are generated in both the subventricular zone and the striatal parenchyma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute striatal lesions increase proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and induce migration of SVZ neuroblasts to the striatum. However, the potential of these cells to replace acutely degenerated neurons is controversial. The possible contribution of parenchymal progenitors to striatal lesion-induced neurogenesis has been poorly explored. Here, we present a detailed investigation of neurogenesis in the striatum of a mouse model showing slow progressive neurodegeneration of striatal neurons, the Creb1(Camkcre4)Crem⁻/⁻ mutant mice (CBCM). By using BrdU time course analyses, intraventricular injections of a cell tracker and 3D reconstructions we showed that neurodegeneration in CBCM mice stimulates the migration of SVZ neuroblasts to the striatum without altering SVZ proliferation. SVZ-neuroblasts migrate as chains through the callosal striatal border and then enter within the striatal parenchyma as individual cells. In addition, a population of clustered neuroblasts showing high turnover rates were observed in the mutant striatum that had not migrated from the SVZ. Clustered neuroblasts might originate within the striatum itself because they are specifically associated with parenchymal proliferating cells showing features of intermediate neuronal progenitors such as clustering, expression of EGF receptor and multiple glial (SOX2, SOX9, BLBP) and neuronal (Dlx, Sp8, and to some extent DCX) markers. Newborn striatal neurons had a short lifespan and did not replace projection neurons nor expressed sets of transcription factors involved in their specification. The differentiation failure of endogenous neuroblasts likely occurred cell autonomously because transplanted wild type embryonic precursors correctly differentiated into striatal projection neurons. Thus, we propose that under progressive degeneration, neither SVZ derived nor intra-striatal generated neurons have the potential to differentiate into striatal projection neurons.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25088. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Toll-like receptor 3 regulates neural stem cell proliferation by modulating the Sonic Hedgehog pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling has been implicated in neural stem/precursor cell (NPC) proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms involved, and their relationship to classical TLR-mediated innate immune pathways, remain unknown. Here, we report investigation of the mechanics of TLR3 signaling in neurospheres comprised of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-responsive NPC isolated from murine embryonic cerebral cortex of C57BL/6 (WT) or TLR3 deficient (TLR3(-/-)) mice. Our data indicate that the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC) negatively regulates NPC proliferation by inhibiting Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling, that PIC induces apoptosis in association with inhibition of Ras-ERK signaling and elevated expression of Fas, and that these effects are TLR3-dependent, suggesting convergent signaling between the Shh and TLR3 pathways.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e26766. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurosphere-forming cells can be isolated from virtually all neural tissues during embryonic development as well as some neural tissues in the adult such as the adult subependymal zone (SEZ) and spinal cord. While these cells share in common the ability of generating clonal aggregates, the so-called neurospheres, that display self-renewal capacity and cellular multipotency (i.e., the potential to generate the three major neural lineages), they can markedly differ in their intrinsic propensity toward neurogenesis or gliogenesis as well as their ability to generate distinct types of neurons with respect to their transmitter identity. Here we discuss the endogenous differentiation potential of neurosphere cells derived from both embryonic and adult brain tissues and provide protocols how to direct adult SEZ neurosphere cells toward specific neuronal subtypes (i.e., GABAergic versus glutamatergic) via retroviral-mediated gene transfer of pro-neural genes. Key wordsNeurosphere-gene transfer-retrovirus-pro-neural genes07/2010: pages 29-49;