Reductions in circulating anabolic hormones induced by sustained sleep deprivation in rats.
ABSTRACT The main systemic disorders resulting from prolonged sleep deprivation in laboratory animals are a negative energy balance, low circulating thyroid hormones, and host defense impairments. Low thyroid hormones previously have been found caused by altered regulation at the level of the hypothalamus with possible pituitary involvement. The present studies investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on other major anabolic hormonal systems. Plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations and major secretory bursts were characterized. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was evaluated as an integrative marker of peripheral GH effector activity. Prolactin (PRL) was assessed by basal concentrations and by stimulating the pituitary with exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Leptin was studied for its linkage to metabolic signs of sleep loss and its correspondence to altered neuroendocrine regulation in other disease states. Last, plasma corticosterone was measured to investigate the degree of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation. Sleep deprivation was produced by the disk-over-water method, a well-established means of selective deprivation of sleep and noninterference with normal waking behaviors. Hormone concentrations were determined in sham comparisons and at intervals during baseline and experimental periods lasting at least 15 days in partially and totally sleep-deprived rats. The results indicate that high-amplitude pulses of GH were nearly abolished and that concentrations of GH, IGF-I, PRL, and leptin all were suppressed by sleep deprivation. Corticosterone concentration was relatively unaffected. Features of these results, such as low GH and low IGF-I, indicate failed negative feedback and point to hypothalamic mechanisms as containing the foci responsible for peripheral signs.
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ABSTRACT: Acute sleep deprivation in humans has been found to increase inflammatory markers and signaling pathways in the periphery through a possible Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). In addition, short duration sleep has been associated with low circulating total Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. We aimed to determine whether a total sleep deprivation (TSD) protocol with recovery altered whole-blood gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as TLR-4 expression, and to examine the relationship with circulating concentrations of the IGF-I system. Twelve healthy men participated in a five-day TSD (two control nights followed by one night of sleep deprivation and one night of recovery). Blood was sampled at 0800, before and after sleep deprivation (D2 and D4), and after recovery (D5). It is shown that 25h of sleep deprivation (D4) induced significant increases in mRNA levels of TNF-α and its soluble receptor R1 (P<0.01 respectively), as well as TLR-4 (P<0.05), while IL-6 mRNA levels remained unchanged. Circulating concentrations of free IGF-I were decreased at D4 (P<0.001). One night of recovery was sufficient to restore basal expression levels for TNF-α, sTNF-R1, TLR-4 and circulating IGF-I. Changes in TLR-4 mRNA levels during the protocol correlated positively with those of TNF-α and sTNF-R1 (r = 0.393 and r = 0.490 respectively), and negatively with circulating free IGF-I (r = -0.494). In conclusion, 25h of sleep deprivation in healthy subjects is sufficient to induce transient and reversible genomic expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its R1 receptor, and its mediator TLR-4, with a possible link to IGF-I axis inhibition.European cytokine network 08/2014; 25(3):52-7. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic sleep restriction in human beings results in metabolic abnormalities, including changes in the control of glucose homeostasis, increased body mass and risk of cardiovascular disease. In rats, 96h of REM sleep deprivation increases caloric intake, but retards body weight gain. Moreover, this procedure increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may be involved with the molecular mechanism proposed to mediate insulin resistance. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a chronic protocol of sleep restriction on parameters of energy balance (food intake and body weight), leptin plasma levels and its hypothalamic receptors and mediators of the immune system in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). Thirty-four Wistar rats were distributed in control (CTL) and sleep restriction groups; the latter was kept onto individual narrow platforms immersed in water for 18h/day (from 16:00h to 10:00h), for 21days (SR21). Food intake was assessed daily, after each sleep restriction period and body weight was measured daily, after the animals were taken from the sleep deprivation chambers. At the end of the 21day of sleep restriction, rats were decapitated and RPAT was obtained for morphological and immune functional assays and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was assessed in skeletal muscle. Another subset of animals was used to evaluate blood glucose clearance. The results replicated previous findings on energy balance, e.g., increased food intake and reduced body weight gain. There was a significant reduction of RPAT mass (p<0.001), of leptin plasma levels and hypothalamic leptin receptors. Conversely, increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and expression of phosphorylated NFκ-β in the RPAT of SR21 compared to CTL rats (p<0.01, for all parameters). SR21 rats also displayed reduced glucose clearance and IRS-1 expression than CTL rats (p<0.01). The present results indicated that 21days of sleep restriction by the platform method induced metabolic syndrome-related alterations that may be mediated by inflammation of the RPAT. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Brain Behavior and Immunity 12/2014; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poor sleep is often associated with a series of health problems in patients with COPD, but the relationship between sleep quality and functional exercise capacity has not been previously investigated. To evaluate the relationship between quality of sleep and functional exercise capacity in clinically stable COPD. 103 consecutive subjects with stable COPD were recruited. The subjects were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and divided into poor sleep group (PSQI >5) and good sleep group (PSQI≤5). Subjects were also assessed with spirometry, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), oxygen saturation (SP O2 ), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, COPD assessment test (CAT), Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea scale and quadriceps muscle function. Poor sleep was present in 43.69% of the patients with COPD. Subjects with poor sleep had shorter 6MWD (t=-3.588, P<0.001), greater age (t=2.519, P=0.013), worse quality of life (t=5.487, P<0.001), and more depression (t=6.576, P<0.001) or anxiety (t=4.245, P<0.001) symptoms. 6MWD showed significant negative correlations with the PSQI global score (r =-0.373, P<0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that PSQI global score was an independent psychological predictor of 6MWD, and 6MWD was the only physical predictor of PSQI total score in patients with COPD. There is a close relationship between sleep quality and functional exercise capacity in patients with COPD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.The Clinical Respiratory Journal 12/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor