Development of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model-cytotoxicity of mercury and aluminum.
ABSTRACT In this study, in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models composed of two different cell types were compared. The aim of our study was to find an alternative human cell line that could be used in BBB models. Inorganic and organic mercury and aluminum were studied as model chemicals in the testing of the system. BBB models were composed of endothelial RBE4 cell line or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line ARPE-19 and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells as target cells. Glial U-373 MG cells were included in part of the tests to induce the formation of a tighter barrier. Millicell CM filter inserts were coated with rat-tail collagen, and RBE4 or ARPE-19 cells were placed on the filters at the density of 3.5-4 x 10(5) cells/filter. During culture, the state of confluency was microscopically observed and confirmed by the measurement of electrical resistance caused by the developing cell layer. The target cells, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, were plated on the bottom of cell culture wells at the density of 100000 cells/cm(2). In part of the studies, glial U-373 MG cells were placed on the under side of the membrane filter. When confluent filters with ARPE-19 or RBE4 cells were placed on top of the SH-SY5Y cells, different concentrations of mercuric chloride, methyl mercury chloride, and aluminum chloride were added into the filter cups along with a fluorescent tracer. Exposure time was 24 h, after which the cytotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y cell layer, as well as in the ARPE-19 or RBE4 cell layer, was evaluated by the luminescent measurement of total ATP. The leakage of the fluorescent tracer was also monitored. The results showed that both barrier cell types were induced by glial cells. Inorganic and organic mercury caused a leakage of the dye and cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Especially, methyl mercury chloride could exert an effect on target cells before any profound cytotoxicity in barrier cells could be seen. Aluminum did not cause any leakage in the barrier cell layer, and even the highest concentration (1 mM) of aluminum did not cause any cytotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, BBB models composed of RBE4 and ARPE-19 cells were able to distinguish between different toxicities, and ARPE-19 cells are thus promising candidates for studies of drug penetration through the blood-brain barrier.
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ABSTRACT: Even in the 21st century, studies aimed at characterizing the pathological paradigms associated with the development and progression of central nervous system diseases are primarily performed in laboratory animals. However, limited translational significance, high cost, and labor to develop the appropriate model (e.g., transgenic or inbred strains) have favored parallel in vitro approaches. In vitro models are of particular interest for cerebrovascular studies of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which plays a critical role in maintaining the brain homeostasis and neuronal functions. Because the BBB dynamically responds to many events associated with rheological and systemic impairments (e.g., hypoperfusion), including the exposure of potentially harmful xenobiotics, the development of more sophisticated artificial systems capable of replicating the vascular properties of the brain microcapillaries are becoming a major focus in basic, translational, and pharmaceutical research. In vitro BBB models are valuable and easy to use supporting tools that can precede and complement animal and human studies. In this article, we provide a detailed review and analysis of currently available in vitro BBB models ranging from static culture systems to the most advanced flow-based and three-dimensional coculture apparatus. We also discuss recent and perspective developments in this ever expanding research field.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2011; 101(4):1337-54. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to develop and test a method to reveal if the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) support the functions of photoreceptors. hESC-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells offer a potent cell source for cell replacement therapy that may be used to prevent certain eye diseases. Methods to assure the functionality of the RPE cells are well warranted. Electroretinograms (ERG) measure the electrophysiological response of the retina to light stimuli. A setup was developed that enables the measurement of ERG in vitro from mice retinas cultured together with hESC-RPE cells. The co-culture of RPE and retinas seems to be a viable tool to assess the functionality of RPE in vitro. However, owing to limited sample size results were somewhat mixed, and thus it was not possible to prove that hESC-RPE cells enhance the ERG response of a mouse retina in vitro. The long-term culturing of the retinas needs to be refined to acquire more conclusive evidence of the supporting role of the RPE and to explore the full potential of the co-culture and ERG methods in assessing RPE functionality.Medical & Biological Engineering 10/2012; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report for the first time on the comparative use of pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (PPGD) and pulsed UV light (PUV) for the novel destruction of the waterborne enteroparasite Cryptosporidium parvum. It also describes the first cyto-, geno- and ecotoxicological assays undertaken to assess the safety of water decontaminated using PPGD and PUV. During PPGD treatments, the application of high voltage pulses (16 kv, 10 pps) to gas-injected water (N2 or O2, flow rate 2.5 L/min) resulted in the formation of a plasma that generated free radicals, ultraviolet light, acoustic shock waves and electric fields that killed ca. 4 log C. parvum oocysts in 32 min exposure. Findings showed that PPGD-treated water produced significant cytotoxic properties (as determined by MTT and neutral red assays), genotoxic properties (as determined by comet and Ames assays), and ecotoxic properties (as determined by Microtox(TM), Thamnotox(TM) and Daphnotox(TM) assays) that are representative of different trophic levels in aquatic environment (P < 0.05). Depending in part on the type of injected gas used, PPGD-treated water became either alkaline (pH ≤8.58, using O2) or acidic (pH ≥3.21, using N2) and contained varying levels of reactive free radicals such as ozone (0.8 mg/L) and/or dissociated nitric and nitrous acid that contributed to the observed disinfection and toxicity. Chemical analysis of PPGD-treated water revealed increasing levels of electrode metals that were present at ≤ 30 times the tolerated respective values for EU drinking water. PUV-treated water did not exhibit any toxicity and was shown to be far superior to that of PPGD for killing C. parvum oocysts taking only 90s of pulsing [UV dose of 6.29μJ/cm(2)] to produce a 4-log reduction compared to a similar reduction level achieved after 32 min PPGD treatment as determined by combined in vitro CaCo-2 cell culture-qPCR.Journal of microbiological methods 07/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor