Determination of carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 22 carbamates including their metabolites in vegetables and fruits. For the optimization of APPI, several APPI ion source parameters were examined. As a result, many carbamates with APPI using the optimized parameter gave simple mass spectra, and a strong signal corresponding to [M + H](+) was observed except for aldicarb. However, some carbamate metabolites gave ammonium adduct ions [M + NH(4)](+) as base peak ions. The mean recovery of each carbamate from grape and onion samples spiked at 5 ng/g was 81.7-105.7%, with relative standard deviations of 3.3-5.9%. Furthermore, matrix constituents did not significantly influence the ionization efficiency. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) in grape and onion was in the range of 0.33-3.33 ng/g. For the robustness of this method, this system has been used to analyze 50 samples, and the intensities for all carbamates were found to be unaffected by the contamination of the APPI source by sample matrix constituents. This result indicates that the method is reliable.
- SourceAvailable from: Cedric Pearce[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As part of our ongoing investigation of filamentous fungi for anticancer leads, an active fungal extract was identified from the Mycosynthetix library (MSX 55526; from the Order Sordariales). Bioactivity-directed fractionation yielded the known ergosterol peroxide (2) and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol(3), and a new benzoate trimer, termed thielavin B methyl ester (1). The structure elucidation of 1 was facilitated by the use of HRMS coupled to an APPI (atmospheric pressure photoionization) source. Compound 1 proved to be moderately active against a panel of three cancer cell lines.Tetrahedron Letters 11/2011; 52(44):5733-5735. · 2.40 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new and sensitive analytical method, using capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) with a microfabricated heated nebulizer chip for atmospheric pressure photoionization and tandem mass spectrometry (μAPPI-MS/MS), was developed for the analysis of selected carbamate pesticides in a tomato matrix. The performance of the instrumental method was evaluated, using seven pesticides, namely oxamyl, methomyl, aldicarb, carbofuran, pirimicarb, thiocarb, and ditalimfos. The limits of detection achieved with the capLC-μAPPI-MS/MS method in the positive ion mode were low, ranging from 0.25 ng mL(-1) for pirimicarb to 5 ng mL(-1) for oxamyl and methomyl, corresponding to 5 and 0.25 μg kg(-1) for tomato samples, respectively, which are clearly below the maximum residue limits for them in fruits and vegetables. The repeatability of the instrumental method ranged from 2.9 to 13.9% (RSD) at a low (0.05 μg mL(-1)) concentration level. An adequate linearity (r(2)=0.984-0.999) at a concentration range from 0.005 to 5.0 μg mL(-1) was observed for all pesticides. The results obtained show that the capLC-μAPPI-MS/MS method developed could be used for the analysis of selected pesticides from tomato.Analytica chimica acta 06/2011; 696(1-2):77-83. · 4.31 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The juvenile hormones (JHs) have been considered the most versatile hormones in the animal kingdom. JH-II is the most abundant JH in Sesamia nonagrioides, important maize pests in the Mediterranean basin. This study compared the sensitivities and matrix effects of four ionization modes on analyzing JH-II in S. nonagrioides hemolymph using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The ionization techniques tested were electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), and APPI with the lamp turned off, which corresponds to atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization (APTSI). ESI was discarded because of the high matrix effect. APPI was discarded because the correlation responses between solvent and matrix on the instrumental quality parameters were worse than those for APTSI and APCI. In our analytical conditions, APCI has shown the best validation parameter values. APCI ionization is widely available in instrumental laboratories.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2012; 60(12):3020-5. · 2.91 Impact Factor