Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer.

Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.48). 03/2004; 7(1A):187-200. DOI: 10.1079/PHN2003588
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the epidemiological evidence on diet and cancer and make public health recommendations.
Review of published studies, concentrating on recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses and large prospective studies.
Overweight/obesity increases the risk for cancers of the oesophagus (adenocarcinoma), colorectum, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium and kidney; body weight should be maintained in the body mass index range of 18.5-25 kg/m(2), and weight gain in adulthood avoided. Alcohol causes cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver, and a small increase in the risk for breast cancer; if consumed, alcohol intake should not exceed 2 units/d. Aflatoxin in foods causes liver cancer, although its importance in the absence of hepatitis virus infections is not clear; exposure to aflatoxin in foods should be minimised. Chinese-style salted fish increases the risk for nasopharyngeal cancer, particularly if eaten during childhood, and should be eaten only in moderation. Fruits and vegetables probably reduce the risk for cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach and colorectum, and diets should include at least 400 g/d of total fruits and vegetables. Preserved meat and red meat probably increase the risk for colorectal cancer; if eaten, consumption of these foods should be moderate. Salt preserved foods and high salt intake probably increase the risk for stomach cancer; overall consumption of salt preserved foods and salt should be moderate. Very hot drinks and foods probably increase the risk for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus; drinks and foods should not be consumed when they are scalding hot. Physical activity, the main determinant of energy expenditure, reduces the risk for colorectal cancer and probably reduces the risk for breast cancer; regular physical activity should be taken.

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    ABSTRACT: To assess quantitatively the relationship between fish intake and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 11/2014; 20(41):15398-412.
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    James Irvine, Brian Quinn, Donna Stockdale
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    ABSTRACT: Summary. Introduction: Currently, cancer is one of the most important health concerns-care in the world and Iran. The causes of cancer can be effective in creating things like the environment, food, genetics, hormones, viral factors, sunlight, smoking, weight and physical activity. In this study for first time the Protection motivation theory was applied in nutrition behavior that are important in prevention of cancers. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The participants were from 18 health centers, 9 health centers was selected and from every health center, 24 mothers were selected by simple sampling. The data was collected by a researcher making questionnaire that was completed by participants. After completion of questionnaires, all gathered data were transferred to SPSS 16 and analyzed under ANOVA, Chi square, T-test and Pearson tests and descriptive statistics. Results: Subjects were in the age group between 27-40 years. The education of 41.4% of participants was university. There is significant difference between age of participant and Perceived self efficacy (p=0,005). The data showed that the structures of Protection motivation theory could predicted 34.9% of behavior Nutritional Prevention of Cancer that the most of them was for Perceived Rewards with 39%. Discussion: The data of this study showed that protection motivation theory is effective in predicted the nutritional behavior in prevention of cancers. So we can use from this theory for planning the educational program in prevention of unsuitable behavior in prevention of cancers. Keywords: Protection motivation theory, cancer, nutritional behavior
    Progress in Nutrition. 09/2014; 16(3):197-203.

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