Diet, Nutrition and prevention of cancer

Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.68). 03/2004; 7(1A):187-200. DOI: 10.1079/PHN2003588
Source: PubMed


To assess the epidemiological evidence on diet and cancer and make public health recommendations.
Review of published studies, concentrating on recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses and large prospective studies.
Overweight/obesity increases the risk for cancers of the oesophagus (adenocarcinoma), colorectum, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium and kidney; body weight should be maintained in the body mass index range of 18.5-25 kg/m(2), and weight gain in adulthood avoided. Alcohol causes cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver, and a small increase in the risk for breast cancer; if consumed, alcohol intake should not exceed 2 units/d. Aflatoxin in foods causes liver cancer, although its importance in the absence of hepatitis virus infections is not clear; exposure to aflatoxin in foods should be minimised. Chinese-style salted fish increases the risk for nasopharyngeal cancer, particularly if eaten during childhood, and should be eaten only in moderation. Fruits and vegetables probably reduce the risk for cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach and colorectum, and diets should include at least 400 g/d of total fruits and vegetables. Preserved meat and red meat probably increase the risk for colorectal cancer; if eaten, consumption of these foods should be moderate. Salt preserved foods and high salt intake probably increase the risk for stomach cancer; overall consumption of salt preserved foods and salt should be moderate. Very hot drinks and foods probably increase the risk for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus; drinks and foods should not be consumed when they are scalding hot. Physical activity, the main determinant of energy expenditure, reduces the risk for colorectal cancer and probably reduces the risk for breast cancer; regular physical activity should be taken.

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    • "Diet is a key player in the progression and pathogenesis of cancer. While high-calorie and high-fat diets are associated with increased incidence of cancer [59], several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between low-sugar diet and a lower incidence of cancer [60]. Our study indicates a reduced tumor growth and tumor weight, along with a reduced proliferation of tumor cells in tumor-bearing mice that were subjected to a ketogenic diet relative to regular chow. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Aberrant energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. To fulfill the increased energy requirements, tumor cells secrete cytokines/factors inducing muscle and fat degradation in cancer patients, a condition known as cancer cachexia. It accounts for nearly 20% of all cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanistic basis of cancer cachexia and therapies targeting cancer cachexia thus far remain elusive. A ketogenic diet, a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that elevates circulating levels of ketone bodies (i.e., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone), serves as an alternative energy source. It has also been proposed that a ketogenic diet leads to systemic metabolic changes. Keeping in view the significant role of metabolic alterations in cancer, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet may diminish glycolytic flux in tumor cells to alleviate cachexia syndrome and, hence, may provide an efficient therapeutic strategy. Results We observed reduced glycolytic flux in tumor cells upon treatment with ketone bodies. Ketone bodies also diminished glutamine uptake, overall ATP content, and survival in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines, while inducing apoptosis. A decrease in levels of c-Myc, a metabolic master regulator, and its recruitment on glycolytic gene promoters, was in part responsible for the metabolic phenotype in tumor cells. Ketone body-induced intracellular metabolomic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells also leads to a significantly diminished cachexia in cell line models. Our mouse orthotopic xenograft models further confirmed the effect of a ketogenic diet in diminishing tumor growth and cachexia. Conclusions Thus, our studies demonstrate that the cachectic phenotype is in part due to metabolic alterations in tumor cells, which can be reverted by a ketogenic diet, causing reduced tumor growth and inhibition of muscle and body weight loss.
    09/2014; 2(1):18. DOI:10.1186/2049-3002-2-18
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    • "Identifying the potential for societal welfare gains from disease prevention requires an understanding of what people at risk value when making their choices, and why they value certain factors more than others. The most important determinants of health are related to individual behaviour, including individuals’ choices and trade-offs that may significantly affect their health [14, 15]. "
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    BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):783. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-783 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Although dietary factors are thought to account for up to one-third of cancers in Western nations [149], the complexity of immuno-nutrition is well highlighted in the research relating to cancer prevention. A typical meal may have thousands to bioactive compounds [150], distinguishing the effects of one from another is made all the more difficult by evidence that compounds may synergize or inhibit each other in respect to the development of neoplasms [151,152] as well as possible confounding by other environmental exposures such as smoking and infections (H. "
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    ABSTRACT: While numerous changes in human lifestyle constitute modern life, our diet has been gaining attention as a potential contributor to the increase in immune-mediated diseases. The Western diet is characterized by an over consumption and reduced variety of refined sugars, salt, and saturated fat. Herein our objective is to detail the mechanisms for the Western diet's impact on immune function. The manuscript reviews the impacts and mechanisms of harm for our over-indulgence in sugar, salt, and fat, as well as the data outlining the impacts of artificial sweeteners, gluten, and genetically modified foods; attention is given to revealing where the literature on the immune impacts of macronutrients is limited to either animal or in vitro models versus where human trials exist. Detailed attention is given to the dietary impact on the gut microbiome and the mechanisms by which our poor dietary choices are encoded into our gut, our genes, and are passed to our offspring. While today's modern diet may provide beneficial protection from micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, our over abundance of calories and the macronutrients that compose our diet may all lead to increased inflammation, reduced control of infection, increased rates of cancer, and increased risk for allergic and auto-inflammatory disease.
    Nutrition Journal 06/2014; 13(1):61. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-61 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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