As a consequence of the physiological demands experienced during a competitive soccer season, the antagonistic relationship between anabolic and catabolic processes can affect performance. Twenty-five male collegiate soccer players were studied throughout a season (11 weeks) to investigate the effects of long-term training and competition. Subjects were grouped as starters (S; n = 11) and nonstarters (NS; n = 14). Measures of physical performance, body composition, and hormonal concentrations (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) were assessed preseason (T1) and 5 times throughout the season (T2-T6). Starters and NS participated in 83.06% and 16.95% of total game time, respectively. Nonstarters had a significant increase (+1.6%) in body fat at T6 compared to T1. Isokinetic strength of the knee extensors (1.05 rad.sec(-1)) significantly decreased in both S (-12%) and NS (-10%; p < or = 0.05) at T6. Significant decrements in sprint speed (+4.3%) and vertical jump (-13.8%) were found at T5 in S only. Though within normal ranges (10.4-41.6 nmol.L(-1)), concentrations of T at T1 were low for both groups, but increased significantly by T6. Concentrations of C were elevated in both groups, with concentrations at the high end of the normal range (normal range 138-635 nmol.L(-1)) at T1 and T4 in NS and T4 in S, with both groups remaining elevated at T6. Data indicate that players entering the season with low circulating concentrations of T and elevated levels of C can experience reductions in performance during a season, with performance decrements exacerbated in starters over nonstarters. Soccer players should therefore have a planned program of conditioning that does not result in an acute overtraining phenomenon prior to preseason (e.g., young players trying to get in shape quickly in the 6 to 8 weeks in the summer prior to reporting for preseason camp). The detrimental effects of inappropriate training do not appear to be unloaded during the season and catabolic activities can predominate.
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"Observing the data on the initial drop in performance induced by the eccentric activity [7, 15, 17], recent researches have aimed at a very important aspect of the physical training process: the monitoring of biochemical and immunological markers and also the performance [18–20]. High training loads with insufficient recovery periods have been suggested to induce overreaching and overtraining in team sport players [18, 21], and the monitoring of these responses along with the training period may be critical for the identification of such events. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to observe the time course of muscle damage and inflammatory responses following an eccentric overload resistance-training (EO) program. 3 females (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 70.9 ± 12.7 kg; 1.6 ± 0.08 m) and 5 males (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 75.1 ± 11.2 kg; 1.8 ± 0.1 m) underwent thirteen training sessions (4 × 8–10 eccentric-only repetitions—80% of eccentric 1RM, one-minute rest, 2x week
, during 7 weeks, for three exercises). Blood samples were collected prior to (Pre) and after two (P2), seven (P7), nine (P9), eleven (P11), and thirteen (P13) sessions, always 96 hours after last session. The reference change values (RCV) analysis was employed for comparing the responses, and the percentual differences between the serial results were calculated for each subject and compared with RCV
. Four subjects presented significant changes for creatine kinase at P2, and another two at P13; six for C-reactive protein at P2, and three at P11; two for neutrophils at P2, P4, and P13, respectively; and only one for white blood cells at P2, P4, P7, and P9, for lymphocyte at P7, P9, and P13, and for platelet at P4. We conclude that EO induced high magnitude of muscle damage and inflammatory responses in the initial phase of the program with subsequent attenuation.
Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013(7):204942. DOI:10.1155/2013/204942 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"(Elloumi et al., 2008). These observations are in agreement with other studies that found a decrease in plasma or sT concentrations after a few weeks of a training program, in relation to the volume, the intensity, the training load, and the type of sport (Lo´pez Calbet et al., 1993; De Souza et al., 1994; Lac et al., 1995; Filaire et al., 2001a; Kraemer et al, 2004; Coutts et al., 2007). Lac and Berthon (2000) reported variations in the sT and sF levels and the sT/sF ratio in long-distance runners during a relay competition and during the 3 days following the competition. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 12/2010; 21(2):157-69. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01252.x · 2.90 Impact Factor
"In the present study, there was also a significant reduction in the T/C ratio following the overload period. These results agree with other similar research that show that T/C ratio measures may be useful for monitoring adaptation and recovery to training and match play stress in team sport athletes (Filaire et al. 2001; Kraemer et al. 2004). It is interesting that in the present study, the T/C ratio did not return to pre-training levels following the taper in the IT group but rebounded to beyond baseline in the NT group. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify indicators of non-functional overreaching (NFOR) in team sport athletes undertaking intensive training loads. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players were randomly assigned into two pair matched groups. One group completed 6 weeks of normal training (NT) whilst the other group was deliberately overreached through intensified training (IT). Both groups then completed the same 7-day stepwise training load reduction taper. Multistage fitness test (MSFT) performance, VO2 (max), peak aerobic running velocity (V (max)), maximal heart rate, vertical jump, 10-s cycle sprint performance and body mass were measured pre- and post-training period and following the taper. Hormonal, haematological and immunological parameters were also measured pre-training and following weeks 2, 4 and 6 of training and post-taper. MANOVA for repeated measures with contrast analysis indicated that MSFT performance and VO2 (max) were significantly reduced in the IT group over time and condition, indicating that a state of overreaching was attained. However, the only biochemical measure that was significantly different between the IT and NT group was the glutamine to glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratio even though testosterone, testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio, plasma glutamate, and CK activity were significantly changed after training in both groups. Positive endurance and power performance changes were observed post-taper in the IT group confirming NFOR. These changes were associated with increases in the T/C ratio and the Gln/Glu ratio and decreases in plasma glutamate and CK activity. These results indicate that although there was no single reliable biochemical marker of NFOR in these athletes, the Gln/Glu ratio and MSFT test may be useful measures for monitoring responses to IT in team sport athletes.