Species-Specific Recognition of Single-Stranded RNA via Toll-like Receptor 7 and 8
Department of Host Defense, Osaka University, Suika, Ōsaka, Japan Science
(Impact Factor: 33.61).
04/2004; 303(5663):1526-9. DOI: 10.1126/science.1093620
Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) serves as a danger signal associated with viral infection and leads to stimulation
of innate immune cells. In contrast, the immunostimulatory potential of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is poorly understood and
innate immune receptors for ssRNA are unknown. We report that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived
from human immunodeficiency virus–1 (HIV-1) stimulate dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages to secrete interferon-α and proinflammatory,
as well as regulatory, cytokines. By using Toll-like receptor (TLR)–deficient mice and genetic complementation, we show that
murine TLR7 and human TLR8 mediate species-specific recognition of GU-rich ssRNA. These data suggest that ssRNA represents
a physiological ligand for TLR7 and TLR8.
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