Interhemispheric coherence of the sleep electroencephalogram in mice with congenital callosal dysgenesis.
ABSTRACT Regional differences in the effect of sleep deprivation on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) may be related to interhemispheric synchronization. To investigate the role of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric EEG synchronization, coherence spectra were computed in mice with congenital callosal dysgenesis (B1) under baseline conditions and after 6-h sleep deprivation, and compared with the spectra of a control strain (C57BL/6). In B1 mice coherence was lower than in controls in all vigilance states. The level of coherence in each of the three totally acallosal mice was lower than in the mice with only partial callosal dysgenesis. The difference between B1 and control mice was present over the entire 0.5-25 Hz frequency range in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM sleep), and in all frequencies except for the high delta and low theta band (3-7 Hz) in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and waking. In control mice, sleep deprivation induced a rise of coherence in the Delta band of NREM sleep in the first 2 h of recovery. This effect was absent in B1 mice with total callosal dysgenesis and attenuated in mice with partial callosal dysgenesis. In both strains the effect of sleep deprivation dissipated within 4 h. The results show that EEG synchronization between the hemispheres in sleep and waking is mediated to a large part by the corpus callosum. This applies also to the functional changes induced by sleep deprivation in NREM sleep. In contrast, interhemispheric synchronisation of theta oscillations in waking and REM sleep may be mediated by direct interhippocampal connections.
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ABSTRACT: Relatively few behavioral deficits are apparent in subjects with hereditary absence of the corpus callosum (CC). The anterior commissure (AC) has been suggested to provide an extracallosal route for the transfer of interhemispheric information in subjects with this congenital defect. Anterior commissure size, axon number, axon diameter, and neuronal distribution were compared between normal mice and those with complete CC absence. No difference in midsagittal AC area was found between normals and acallosals, nor were differences found in the numbers or diameters of myelinated axons. However, axon counts indicated an 17% increase or about 70,000 more unmyelinated axons in the AC of acallosal mice, and the mean diameter of unmyelinated axons was slightly less than in normal mice (0.24 vs 0.26 microm). This decrease in axon diameter enabled more axons to pass through the AC without increasing its midsagittal area. The topographical distribution of neurons sending axons through the AC, assessed with lipophilic dyes, was qualitatively similar for almost all the known regions of origin of the anterior commissure in normal and acallosal mice. There was a pronounced deficit of AC cells in the anterior piriform cortex of BALB/c mice, but this occurred whether or not the mouse suffered absent CC. Although the increase in AC axon number is far smaller than the number of CC axons that fail to reach the opposite hemisphere, the higher number of axons present in the AC of acallosal mice may contribute to the functional compensation for the loss of the CC.Experimental Neurology 09/1997; 146(2):491-501. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 2. The slow oscillation ( < 1 Hz) was absent in all 72 VL cells and in 23 of 25 RE cells from the decorticated hemisphere, as well as in the EThG recorded from the VL nucleus in the decorticated hemisphere, whereas it was simultaneously present in the cortex and thalamus of the intact hemisphere. The remaining two RE neurons (8%) in the decorticated hemisphere oscillated in close time relation with the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus of the opposite hemisphere; averaged activities showed that the onset of depolarization in RE cell followed 12 ms after the sharp depth-negative (depolarizing) component in the contralateral cor- tex. We view this result as the electrophysiological correlate of a disynaptic excitatory pathway consisting of crossed cortical projec- tions, first relayed in contralateral dorsal thalamic nuclei. 3. The patterns of thalamic spindles (7- 14 Hz) differed be- tween the two hemispheres. Whereas the decorticated hemisphere displayed prolonged, waxing and waning spindles, the spindles in the intact-cortex hemisphere were short and exclusively waning and followed the depth-negative component of cortical slow oscil- lation. This result indicates that the synchronized corticothalamic drive associated with the slow oscillation fully entrains thalamic circuits from the onset of spindles, thus preventing further waxing. Similar differences between waxing and waning and waning spin- dles were obtained by stimulating with different intensities the thalamus in the decorticated hemisphere. 4. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from two VL cells or from RE and VL cells showed nearly simultaneous spindle se- quences in the decorticated hemisphere. 5. The hyperpolarization-activated intrinsic delta oscillation ( l-4 Hz) of TC cells was asynchronous in the decorticated hemi- sphere. 6. These results strengthen the idea that the slow oscillation is cortical in origin; demonstrate a full, short-range, intrathalamic synchrony of spindles in the absence of cortex; and indicate that the pattern of spindles, a sleep rhythm that is conventionally re- garded as purely thalamic, is shaped by the corticothalamic feedback.
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ABSTRACT: Targeted mutagenesis in mice, a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function and human disease, makes extensive use of 129 mouse substrains. Although all are named 129, we document that outcrossing of these substrains, both deliberate and accidental, has lead to extensive genetic variability among substrains and embryonic stem cells derived from them. This clearer understanding of 129 substrain variability allows consideration of its negative impact on targeting technology, including: homologous recombination frequencies, preparation of inbred animals, and availability of appropriate controls. Based on these considerations we suggest a number of recommendations for future experimental design.Nature Genetics 04/1997; 16(1):19-27. · 35.21 Impact Factor