Transperitoneal water transport before, during, and after episodes with infectious peritonitis in patients treated with CAPD.
ABSTRACT Peritonitis is considered to change peritoneal permeability and influences the long-term change in permeability during peritoneal dialysis. The objective of this study is to evaluate water transport across the peritoneum, expressed as drained ultrafiltration volume, before, during, and after episodes of peritonitis.
A retrospective analysis of data from a group of patients was performed in which drained ultrafiltration volume and glucose concentration in dialysis fluid were recorded for each dwell time every day during time on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment as a part of the clinical routine performed. Days with peritonitis and average of daily measurements 1 month before and after each peritonitis episode were evaluated separately for day and night exchanges. In all, 64 episodes of peritonitis in 30 patients were included in this study. Approximately 15,000 exchanges were recorded. Paired t-test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were performed.
Compared with the average for the previous month, there was a significant decrease in ultrafiltration volume for day exchanges occurring 2 days before the appearance of other clinical symptoms of peritonitis (P = 0.029). For night exchanges, the decrease in ultrafiltration volume occurred 24 hours before diagnosis (P < 0.001). Ultrafiltration volume was at its minimum the day of diagnosis for both the day (P < 0.001) and night (P < 0.001) exchanges compared with average volume for the previous month. Ultrafiltration volumes remained low for 2 days after diagnosis during both the day (P = 0.009) and night (P = 0.017) exchanges. Relative to the previous month, glucose concentration on the day of clinical diagnosis of peritonitis did not differ significantly (P = 0.328 and P = 0.963 for day and night shifts, respectively). Overall, no significant changes in ultrafiltration volumes or glucose concentrations from the month before to the month after the peritonitis episode were found (P = 0.99 and P = 0.27 for measurements during the day, respectively).
Osmotic forced ultrafiltration decreased during infectious peritonitis, most significantly for a long dwell time, consistent with an increase in both functional peritoneal surface area and hydraulic conductivity. This finding appeared 2 days before other clinical symptoms and remained significantly low 2 days after diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: The in situ intraperitoneal volume and the mass transfer area coefficients (MTC) of urea, lactate, creatinine, glucose, kanamycin, inulin, beta 2-microglobulin, albumin and IgG were studied in eight continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. All patients were studied during a 4-h dialysis dwell, first during peritonitis and subsequently after recovery from the infection. The maximal intraperitoneal volume was reached at 68 min during peritonitis and at 150 min in the study after recovery (P less than 0.01), suggesting increased water transport during the infection. For all investigated solutes MTCs were higher in the presence of peritonitis than after recovery. This increase was most marked for the proteins (greater than 100%). The power curve relationships between MTCs and molecular weight indicated that peritoneal transport of the low- and middle-molecular weight solutes was determined by free diffusion and that the infection-induced rise was due to an increase in effective surface area. For protein transport restricted diffusion was found. The increase of this transport during peritonitis was probably caused by both a larger effective surface area and a higher vascular permeability.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/1987; 17(1):43-52. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peritoneal clearance studies were performed in rats undergoing acute peritoneal dialysis. Some of these animals were then exposed to laparotomy and mechanical drying of the peritoneum. Peritoneal clearance studies were repeated at intervals up to 11 days. Another group of rats was placed on daily peritoneal dialysis and allowed to spontaneously develop peritonitis which was not treated. These rats underwent peritoneal transport studies at differing durations of infection. In all groups, animals were sacrificed at the time of the last transport studies for morphological assessment of the peritoneum by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed similar decreases in drainage volume and increases in glucose absorption and protein losses with both infection and drying. Both types of injury resulted in extensive mesothelial structural changes. While drying caused mainly denudation of the mesothelial surface, infectious peritonitis was associated with separation of mesothelial cells, and the appearance of numerous white blood cells between and on mesothelial cells. Exposure to peritoneal dialysis alone had no obvious effects on anatomy. Although changes in the peritoneal microcirculation and deeper structures cannot be excluded as contributing to peritoneal transport alterations, the findings suggest that alterations of mesothelium might explain some of the changes in peritoneal transport properties under the conditions of these studies.Kidney International 07/1983; 23(6):823-31. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The alterations in peritoneal permeability characteristics during peritonitis can only partly be explained by the increased concentrations of prostaglandins and cytokines in the dialysate. Fifteen patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with 16 peritonitis episodes were examined in the acute phase of the infection by using standard peritoneal permeability analyses (SPAs). In 9 of these patients, a control SPA could be performed. The contribution of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein (CRP) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) were analyzed. The mass transfer area coefficients (MTACs) of low-molecular-weight solutes increased during peritonitis: urea 26%, creatinine 45%, and urate 45%. The MTAC of CO2, calculated to estimate peritoneal blood flow, was 71 mL/min (34 to 254 mL/min) during peritonitis and 55 mL/min (42 to 63 mL/min) after recovery, P < or = .05. The peritoneal protein clearances were also greater during peritonitis, but this increase was not related to the molecular weight of the protein. Therefore the restriction coefficients to macromolecules were not different. The net ultrafiltration in all peritonitis episodes was lower as compared with the control dwells: -97 mL (-196 to 19 mL) versus 25 mL (-132 to 216 mL), P = .03. The prostaglandin concentrations in dialysate were greater during peritonitis than after recovery. The median increase was 199% for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 68% for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha), and 44% for thromboxane B2 (TxB2). Plasma sPLA2 values were 22.7 microg/L (7.3 to 407.6) during peritonitis and 8.9 microg/L (5.5 to 11.5) after recovery, P < .01. The increased plasma sPLA2 during peritonitis correlated with plasma CRP (r = .6; P = .02). The peritoneal clearances of sPLA2 were greater during peritonitis, but this could be attributed completely to the increased peritoneal transport. Both during peritonitis and after recovery, the sPLA2 clearances did not exceed the predicted values based on transport from the circulation to the dialysate. No evidence was found for local production of nitrite or nitrate. However, the MTAC of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was greater during the experiments performed 48 to 72 hours after the onset of peritonitis, which suggests the synthesis of NO. It can be concluded that peritonitis does not induce detectable local release of sPLA2 and that the inflammation-induced increase in the vascular surface area could not be attributed to NO in the acute phase. The activation of inducible NO synthase may occur after 48 hours.Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 11/1998; 132(4):329-40. · 2.62 Impact Factor