Validation of axillary sentinel lymph node detection in the staging of early lobular invasive breast carcinoma: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT Previous reports have shown that regional lymph node involvement in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma can be evaluated by resection of axillary sentinel lymph nodes (ASLN). Axillary lymphadenectomy may be unnecessary in the absence of ASLN involvement. In the current study, the authors compared the results of ASLN resection in patients with lobular invasive carcinoma (LIC) with the results from patients with ductal invasive carcinoma (DIC) in terms of detection rates and false-negative rates.
For ASLN detection, technetium 99m sulfur-colloid and patent blue were injected around the tumor. Each patient underwent both ASLN resection and complete axillary lymphadenectomy. Detection rates and false-negative rates were evaluated in patients with LIC and in patients with DIC.
Two hundred forty-three patients with invasive, early-stage breast carcinoma were enrolled in the study (208 patients with DIC and 35 patients with LIC). The median patient age, pathologic tumor size, hormone receptor status, and rates of involved lymph nodes were equivalent for both groups. ASLN detection and false-negative rates did not differ for patients with LIC and patients with DIC.
The ASLN detection rate was not dependent on the pathologic type of invasive carcinoma. Pathologic examination of ASLN in patients with LIC and in patients with DIC predicted axillary lymph node status with the same predictive value in terms of lymph node metastasis. For patients with LIC, ASLN examination overestimated the rate of micrometastasis as diagnosed by immunohistochemical techniques. These results will require confirmation in larger studies.
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ABSTRACT: To review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in lobular breast carcinoma, the in situ or infiltrating subtype, with special attention to the dynamic curves with the aim to evaluate possible differences with ductal carcinoma. In 2 years, 27 patients with lobular and one with tubular carcinoma underwent MRI at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan. All lobular carcinomas demonstrated early or late enhancement (100% sensitivity), without significant differences in morphology compared with ductal carcinoma, but frequently with a different shape of the dynamic curves. Due to its infiltrative growth associated to only limited connective tissue reaction, lobular carcinoma often encounters difficulties in mammographic diagnosis. In contrast, MRI can be very helpful in evaluating the true extension of the disease, especially when breast conservation is considered. Due to a more consistent fibrotic stroma, these lesions sometimes show a delayed enhancement, which suggests that more than one set of subtracted images should be evaluated during MRI analysis.Tumori 01/2001; 87(4):232-8. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to ascertain whether immunohistochemical methods could improve the detection of metastases in primary breast-cancer patients whose axillary lymph nodes were classified, by conventional methods, as disease free. Ipsilateral lymph nodes (negative for metastases by routine histology) from 736 patients (participants in Trial V of the International [Ludwig] Breast Cancer Study) were examined by serial sectioning and staining with haematoxylin and eosin (two sections from each of six levels) and by immunohistochemistry of a single section (with two anticytokeratins AE-1 and CAM 5.2). After median follow-up of 12 years, disease-free and overall survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Occult nodal metastases were detected by serial sectioning and haematoxylin and eosin in 52 (7%) of 736 patients and by immunohistochemistry in 148 (20%). Only two (3%) of 64 invasive lobular or mixed invasive lobular and ductal cancers had node micrometastases, detected by haematoxylin and eosin, compared with 25 (39%) by immunohistochemistry. Occult metastases, detected by either method, were associated with significantly poor disease-free and overall survival in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal patients. Immunohistochemically detected occult lymph-node metastases remained an independent and highly significant predictor of recurrence even after control for tumour grade, tumour size, oestrogen-receptor status, vascular invasion, and treatment assignment (hazard ratio 1.79 [95% CI 1.17-2.74], p=0.007). The immunohistochemical examination of ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes is a reliable, prognostically valuable, and simple method for the detection of occult nodal metastases. Immunohistochemistry is recommended as a standard method of node examination in postmenopausal patients.The Lancet 10/1999; 354(9182):896-900. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy for breast cancer enhances staging sensitivity, often demonstrating only micrometastases (<2 mm) or isolated, keratin-positive cells. When SN metastasis is present, the value of additional axillary dissection is unclear and not all patients benefit from axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Prospective cohort study, median 32-month follow-up. Multidisciplinary breast cancer centers. Forty-six women having SN metastases diagnosed between May 1, 1996, and September 1, 2001, who refused ALND or were recommended to omit ALND owing to serious comorbid conditions. Isosulfan blue dye-directed SN biopsy. Axillary lymph node dissection was not performed. Standard breast irradiation was given. Adjuvant systemic therapy was provided as determined by an oncologist. Interval clinical evaluation was performed. Axillary and systemic failure rates. Mean patient age was 61.6 years (age range, 36-92 years). Mean tumor size was 1.65 cm (range, 0.4-5.5 cm). Thirty-five (76%) of 46 tumors were ductal carcinomas and 39 (87%) of 45 were estrogen receptor-positive. A mean of 2.6 SNs were identified (median, 2; range, 1-7). Thirty-nine patients (85%) had a single positive SN; the remaining 7 patients (15%) had 2 positive SNs. Seven patients (15%) had macrometastases (>2 mm); 16 (35%) had micrometastases (<2 mm); and 23 (50%) had cellular metastases. Only 16 positive SNs (35%) were seen on hematoxylin-eosin staining, while 30 SNs (65%) had positive immunohistochemical staining. There have been no axillary recurrences. One patient (2%) developed distant metastases during follow-up (range, 4-61 months). Patients with SN metastases who did not have ALND had a low incidence of regional failure. To confirm this observation, we suggest that patients with SN metastases are ideal candidates for trials evaluating the necessity of ALND.Archives of Surgery 01/2003; 138(1):52-6. · 4.10 Impact Factor