Chronic pancreatitis. The problems of diagnostic criteria.
ABSTRACT The diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis proposed by the Japan Pancreas Society (JPS) classified chronic pancreatitis into (i) definite; (ii) probable, and (iii) possible chronic pancreatitis, excluding obstructive, inflammatory (autoimmune) and tumor-forming pancreatitis from the definition of chronic pancreatitis. In the JPS Criteria, imaging studies, pancreatic function tests, and histological findings are independent of each other, and thus the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is made if one of the criteria is satisfied, regardless of the etiology of the chronic pancreatitis. The current diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis depend on abnormalities of the duct system, such as low bicarbonate output, dilation of main pancreatic duct and duct branches, and calculi in the ducts by imaging studies. We revealed that the difference between reversible and irreversible pancreatitis in experimental animals is dependent on the degree of damage of the duct epithelium where pancreas progenitor cells exist. Thus, chronic pancreatitis diagnosed by the current criteria based on abnormalities of the duct system is irreversible. In contrast, the epithelium of the ducts is usually preserved in obstructive and autoimmune pancreatitis in that both structural and functional changes recover almost completely when the obstruction is removed or the inflammatory changes disappear following steroid administration. Even in chronic pancreatitis defined as irreversible, there must be a reversible stage during its clinical course. There is a need to develop biological markers and/or imaging procedure to detect chronic pancreatitis at its reversible stage.
Article: Substitution of aspartic acid at position 57 of the DQbeta1 affects relapse of autoimmune pancreatitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) responds well to corticosteroid therapy, relapse during maintenance corticosteroid therapy or after the withdrawal of corticosteroid treatment is not uncommon. To date, the factors related to relapse of AIP have not been fully explored. To determine the clinical and genetic predictors relating to the relapse of AIP, we evaluated clinical factors, HLA polymorphisms, and the amino acid sequences in 40 patients with AIP. At a median follow-up period of 40 months (range, 12-67 months), relapse developed in 13 of 40 patients with AIP (33%), in whom complete remission was achieved with oral corticosteroid therapy. Among demographics, clinical characteristics in the initial diagnosis of AIP, we could not find any clinical predictor for relapse of AIP; however, in amino acid sequence analysis for relapse of AIP, the substitution of aspartic acid to nonaspartic acid at residue 57 of DQbeta1 showed a significant association with relapse of AIP (nonrelapse group, 29.6%; relapse group, 100%; P = .00003; odds ratio, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.0). There was a significant difference in the timing of relapse of AIP, according to density of the nonaspartic acid residue at DQbeta1 57 (nonaspartic acid homozygosity: mean +/- SD, 6.7 +/- 4.2 months; nonaspartic acid heterozygosity: mean +/- SD, 33 +/- 11 months; P < .001). Substitution of aspartic acid to nonaspartic acid at DQbeta1 57 appears to represent a key genetic factor for relapse of AIP (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00444444).Gastroenterology 03/2008; 134(2):440-6. · 11.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There have been few epidemiological studies on pancreatic diabetes. In this study, we determined the incidence and pathology of pancreatic diabetes in Japan. We examined the epidemiology of pancreatic diabetes in Japan in 2005 by using a nationwide stratified random-sampling method. Especially, we focused on newly developed diabetes in association with the occurrence of pancreatic disease (true pancreatic diabetes). A total of 19,500 individuals received treatment for true pancreatic diabetes, accounting for 0.8% of patients with diabetes. Prevalence was estimated to be 15.2 per 100,000 with an annual onset incidence of 1.1 per 100,000. With regard to the complications in true pancreatic diabetes, the incidence of retinopathy was lower than that in types 1 and 2 diabetes. Among true pancreatic diabetes with chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic pancreatitis was found in the largest sector. Furthermore, as many as 53.7% were continuous drinkers, and 66.7% received insulin therapy. The frequency of hypoglycemia was high in regular drinkers treated with insulin. Hypoglycemia was a major cause of death in patients who were on insulin and continuous drinkers. We clarified the epidemiology of pancreatic diabetes in Japan. Patients with chronic pancreatitis-associated pancreatic diabetes should receive lifestyle guidance focused on drinking cessation.Pancreas 02/2010; 39(6):829-35. · 2.39 Impact Factor