Herpes simplex virus.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
Pediatrics in Review (Impact Factor: 0.82). 04/2004; 25(3):86-93.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a standard strain of HSV-1 (strain SM(44)) was used to investigate the antiviral activity of the recombinant Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro and in vivo. Cytopathic effect (CPE) and MTT assays were used to evaluate the effect of CV-N on HSV-1 in Vero cells. The number of copies of HSV-DNA was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR). The results showed that CV-N had a low cytotoxicity on Vero cells with a CC(50) of 359.03 ± 0.56 μg/mL, and that it could not directly inactivate HSV-1 infectivity. CV-N not only reduced the CPE of HSV-1 when added before or after viral infection, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) with 2.26 and 30.16 μg/mL respectively, but it also decreased the copies of HSV-1 DNA in infected host cells. The encephalitis model for HSV-1 infection was conducted in Kunming mice, and treated with three dosages of CV-N (0.5, 5 & 10 mg/kg) which was administered intraperitoneally at 2h, 3d, 5d, 7d post infection. The duration for the appearance of symptoms of encephalitis and the survival days were recorded and brain tissue samples were obtained for pathological examination (HE staining). Compared with the untreated control group, in the 5mg/kg CV-N and 10mg/kg CV-N treated groups, the mice suffered light symptoms and the number of survival days were more than 9 d and 14 d respectively. HE staining also showed that in 5mg/kg CV-N and 10mg/kg CV-N treated groups, the brain cells did not show visible changes, except for a slight inflammation. Our results demonstrated that CV-N has pronounced antiviral activity against HSV-1 both in vitro and in vivo, and it would be a promising new candidate for anti-HSV therapeutics.
    Virologica Sinica 12/2010; 25(6):432-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Intrauterine infections are important causes of childhood blindness in both developed and developing countries. Chorioretinal scars are the most characteristic eye manifestation of a congenital or prenatal infection. The various ocular manifestations of congenital infections, summarized by the mnemonic TORCH, and recent additions to the "other" category (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and West Nile virus) are discussed.
    Survey of Ophthalmology 01/2008; 53(2):95-111. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viruses such as HIV, HCV, Mayaro and HCMV affect cellular metabolic pathways, including glycolysis. Although some studies have suggested that the inhibition of glycolysis affects HSV-1 replication and that HSV-1-infected eyes have increased lactate production, the mechanisms by which HSV-1 induces glycolysis have never been investigated in detail. In this study, we observed an increase in glucose uptake, lactate efflux and ATP content in HSV-1-infected cells. HSV-1 triggered a MOI-dependent increase in the activity of phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), a key rate-limiting enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. After HSV-1 infection, we observed increased PFK-1 expression, which increased PFK-1 total activity, and the phosphorylation of this enzyme at serine residues. HSV-1-induced glycolysis was associated with increased ATP content, and these events were critical for viral replication. In summary, our results suggest that HSV-1 triggers glycolysis through a different mechanism than other herpesviruses, such as HCMV. Thus, this study contributes to a better understanding of HSV-1 pathogenesis and provides insights into novel targets for antiviral therapy. HIGHLIGHTS: ►HSV-1 activates glycolysis by PFK-1 activation. ►In HSV-1-infected cells PFK-1 synthesis is up-regulated and phosphorylated at serine residues. ►PFK-1 knockdown impairs HSV-1 replication. ►HSV-1-mediated glycolysis activation increases ATP content.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2012; 1822(8):1198-206. · 4.66 Impact Factor

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