A systematic review evaluating health-related quality of life, work impairment, and healthcare costs and utilization in bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT Bipolar disorder greatly impacts health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical and social functioning, employment, and work productivity, and greatly increases health-care utilization and costs. Our objective was to characterize how bipolar disorder impacts HRQoL, work impairment, and health-care utilization and costs.
A systematic literature review was conducted to identify bipolar disorder studies of HRQoL, functioning, work impairment, and health-care utilization and costs. We searched Medline, ClinPSYC, and HealthSTAR for English-language articles published between January 1985 and November 2002 using MeSH headings and keywords. Additional articles were identified from references of relevant articles.
We identified 65 HRQoL articles, 14 work-impairment articles, and 28 utilization-and-care-cost articles. For all HRQoL instruments used, bipolar disorder patients' HRQoL was rated similarly to that of unipolar depression patients, and equal to or lower compared with patients with other chronic nonmental illnesses. Current treatments have been shown to improve HRQoL and physical and social functioning; some data indicate that management may improve selfreported work impairment and absenteeism. Bipolar disorder patients have been found to utilize health-care services more than do patients with depression or chronic medical conditions. Inpatient costs are the largest cost contributor; treatment to prevent recurrence has been shown to be the most effective way to reduce costs.
Bipolar disorder imposes a tremendous burden on patients and the health-care system, resulting in decreased HRQoL and increased medical and work impairment costs. Limited data suggest that appropriate management can improve HRQoL and functioning while reducing utilization and cost.
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ABSTRACT: Treating pregnant women with bipolar disorder is among the most challenging clinical endeavors. Patients and clinicians are faced with difficult choices at every turn, and no approach is without risk. Stopping effective pharmacotherapy during pregnancy exposes the patient and her baby to potential harms related to bipolar relapses and residual mood symptom-related dysfunction. Continuing effective pharmacotherapy during pregnancy may prevent these occurrences for many; however, some of the most effective pharmacotherapies (such as valproate) have been associated with the occurrence of congenital malformations or other adverse neonatal effects in offspring. Very little is known about the reproductive safety profile and clinical effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs when used to treat bipolar disorder during pregnancy. In this paper, we provide a clinically focused review of the available information on potential maternal and fetal risks of untreated or undertreated maternal bipolar disorder during pregnancy, the effectiveness of interventions for bipolar disorder management during pregnancy, and potential obstetric, fetal, and neonatal risks associated with core foundational pharmacotherapies for bipolar disorder.Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 01/2015; 7:7-29. DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S50556
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ABSTRACT: The WHODAS 2.0 is an ICF-based multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. The present study analyzes the utility of the 36-item interviewer-administered version in a sample of patients with bipolar disorder. There is no study to date that analyses how the scale works in a sample that only comprises such patients. A total of 291 patients with bipolar disorder (42.6% males) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria from a cross-sectional study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics were enrolled. In addition to the WHODAS 2.0, patients completed a comprehensive assessment battery including measures on psychopathology, functionality and quality of life. Analyses were centered on providing evidence on the validity and utility of the Spanish version of the WHODAS 2.0 in bipolar patients. Participation domain had the highest percentage of missing data (2.7%). Confirmatory factorial analysis was used to test three models formulated in the literature: six primary correlated factors, six primary factors with a single second-order factor, and six primary factors with two second-order factors. The three models were plausible, although the one formed by six correlated factors produced the best fit. Cronbach's alpha values ranged between .73 for the Self-care domain and .92 for Life activities, and the internal consistency of the total score was .96. Relationships between the WHODAS 2.0 and measures of psychopathology, functionality and quality of life were in the expected direction, and the scale was found to be able to differentiate among patients with different intensity of clinical symptoms and work situation. The percentage of euthymic patients was considerable. However, the assessment of euthymic patients is less influenced by mood. Some psychometric properties have not been studied, such as score stability and sensitivity to change. The Spanish version of the 36-item WHODAS 2.0 has suitable psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity when applied to patients with bipolar disorder. Disability in bipolar patients is especially prominent in Cognition, Getting along, Life activities, and Participation domains, so functional remediation interventions should emphasize these areas in order to improve the daily living activities of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:353-360. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.028 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic depression is associated with significant impairment in work functioning, relationships, and health. Such impairment often persists following medication-induced remission of depressive symptoms. We adapted and tested Behavioral Activation therapy with a goal of return to work (BA-W) in subjects with chronic depression who had responded to medication treatment but remained unemployed.Method Sixteen adults aged 18-65 with DSM-IV diagnosed Dysthymic Disorder or chronic Major Depression were recruited from clinical trials taking place at the New York State Psychiatric Institute between 4/2009 and 12/2012 and enrolled in 12 weeks of individual manual-driven BA-W. Functioning was measured at intake, post-treatment and at 24 week follow-up.ResultsEighty-seven percent (n = 14) of subjects completed the full 12 weeks of BA-W. Hours of work related activity (p < .005, d = 0.83), hours of paid work (p < .0003, d = 0.54), and work productivity (p < .0004, d = -0.48) increased significantly over the study period. Earned income increased post-treatment (p = .068) with significant changes by 24 week follow-up (p = .011). Secondary outcomes including behavioral avoidance (p < .004, d = -0.56), and global functioning (p < .0003, d = 1.42) were also significantly improved post-treatment. Effect sizes, including for outcomes with non-significant changes, were generally in the range of 0.5 to 0.8.Conclusions This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy of a work-targeted psychotherapy to remediate vocational impairment in subjects with chronic depression. Data suggests that further testing of BA-W using a randomized controlled trial is warranted and may represent a significant advance in treatment for the residual disability present after successful pharmacotherapy.Comprehensive Psychiatry 11/2014; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.10.015 · 2.26 Impact Factor