Prolonged allergen challenge in mice leads to persistent airway remodelling.
ABSTRACT Inflammatory infiltrates, airway hyper-responsiveness, goblet cell hyperplasia and subepithelial thickening are characteristic of chronic asthma. Current animal models of allergen-induced airway inflammation generally concentrate on the acute inflammation following allergen exposure and fail to mimic all of these features.
The aim of this study was to use a murine model of prolonged allergen-induced airway inflammation in order to characterize the cells and molecules involved in the ensuing airway remodelling. Moreover, we investigated whether remodelling persists in the absence of continued allergen challenge.
Acute pulmonary eosinophilia and airways hyper-reactivity were induced after six serial allergen challenges in sensitized mice (acute phase). Mice were subsequently challenged three times a week with ovalbumin (OVA) (chronic phase) up to day 55. To investigate the persistence of pathology, one group of mice were left for another 4 weeks without further allergen challenge (day 80).
The extended OVA challenge protocol caused significant airway remodelling, which was absent in the acute phase. Specifically, remodelling was characterized by deposition of collagen as well as airway smooth muscle and goblet cell hyperplasia. Importantly, these airway changes, together with tissue eosinophilia were sustained in the absence of further allergen challenge. Examination of cytokines revealed a dramatic up-regulation of IL-4 and tumour growth factor-beta1 during the chronic phase. Interestingly, while IL-4 levels were significantly increased during the chronic phase, levels of IL-13 fell. Levels of the Th1-associated cytokine IFN-gamma also increased during the chronic phase.
In conclusion, we have demonstrated that prolonged allergen challenge results in persistent airway wall remodelling.
Article: TGF-beta and IL-13 synergistically increase eotaxin-1 production in human airway fibroblasts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic diseases may involve an "innate" response followed by an adaptive immune response, of a Th1 or Th2 variety. Little is known regarding the interactions of these responses. We hypothesized that TGF-beta1 (innate response factor associated with wound repair) in combination with IL-13 (Th2 factor) might augment inflammatory processes associated with asthma. Airway fibroblasts were cultured from asthmatic subjects and normal controls. These fibroblasts were exposed to TGF-beta1 and IL-13 alone or in combination, and eotaxin-1 expression and production were evaluated. At 48 h, eotaxin-1 production was markedly increased with the combination of TGF-beta1 and IL-13 (p < 0.0001) compared with either stimulus alone. mRNA increased slightly at 1 h with IL-13 or TGF-beta1 plus IL13, peaked, and became significantly increased over IL-13 alone at 24 h. Protein was measurable from 6 h with IL-13 and TGF-beta1 plus IL-13, but greater levels were measured over time with the combination. Actinomycin ablated the increase in mRNA and protein seen with IL-13 alone and with TGF-beta1 plus IL-13. Cycloheximide blocked the increase in mRNA at 6 h in both conditions, but also blocked the increase at 24 h with TGF-beta1 plus IL-13. STAT-6 was rapidly activated with both IL-13 and the combination, without difference. Finally, eotaxin-1-positive fibroblasts were identified in severe asthma biopsies in greater numbers than in normals. These results support the concept that interactions of innate and adaptive immune systems may be important in promoting the tissue eosinophilia of asthma, particularly in those with more severe disease.The Journal of Immunology 10/2002; 169(8):4613-9. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The epithelial basement membrane and underlying collagen were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy in endobronchial biopsy specimens from 8 asthmatic and 3 control subjects. There was an excess of interstitial collagens beneath the basement membrane in the asthmatic subjects. There was no evidence of any epithelial contribution to this abnormality, nor was there any correlation with epithelial damage, disease duration, or severity. These findings contradict the long-held notion of basement membrane thickening in asthma and indicate that the subepithelial fibrosis is a result of fibroblast activation rather than bronchial epithelial cell dysfunction.The Lancet 04/1989; 1(8637):520-4. · 38.28 Impact Factor
Article: Resolution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation is associated with IL-3 and tissue leukocyte apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have used two models of murine pulmonary inflammation to investigate the signals responsible for the resolution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Both protocols involved two sensitizations with OVA followed by serial aerosolized challenge with OVA. We determined that administration of the second sensitization by aerosol (model A) was associated with a transient response, whereas administration by the i.p. route (model B) induced a sustained response, in the form of BHR and eosinophilia. This difference in kinetics was due solely to the route of the second Ag administration and was not associated with Ag dose or adjuvant. Differences in kinetics of lung eosinophilia/BHR were shown to be independent of IgE levels and IL-4 or IL-5. However, IL-3 levels in model A closely correlated with the rate of leukocyte clearance by apoptosis and were observed concomitant with a decline in BHR. Blockage of IL-3 in model B increased leukocyte apoptosis but reduced tissue eosinophilia and BHR. The use of mouse models in which a single different administration of allergen is associated with a failure/success to resolve inflammation and BHR by 72 h postchallenge indicates a link between IL-3 production, leukocyte apoptosis, and BHR responses.The Journal of Immunology 03/2001; 166(3):2033-40. · 5.79 Impact Factor