LIM kinase 1, a key regulator of actin dynamics, is widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues.
ABSTRACT The expression of endogenous LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) protein was investigated in embryonic and adult mice using a rat monoclonal antibody (mAb), which recognizes specifically the PDZ domain of LIMK1 and not LIMK2. Immunoblotting analysis revealed widespread expression of LIMK1 existing as a 70-kDa protein in tissues and in cell lines, with a higher mass form (approximately 75 kDa) present in some tissues and cell lines. Smaller isoforms of approximately 50 kDa were also occasionally evident. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated LIMK1 subcellular localization at focal adhesions in fibroblasts as revealed by co-staining with actin, paxillin and vinculin in addition to perinuclear (Golgi) and occasional nuclear localization. Furthermore, an association between LIMK1 and paxillin but not vinculin was identified by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. LIMK1 is enriched in both axonal and dendritic growth cones of E18 rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons where it is found in punctae that extend far out into filopodia, as well as in a perinuclear region identified as Golgi. In situ, we identify LIMK1 protein expression in all embryonic and adult tissues examined, albeit at different levels and in different cell populations. The rat monoclonal LIMK1 antibody recognizes proteins of similar size in cell and tissue extracts from numerous species. Thus, LIMK1 is a widely expressed protein that exists as several isoforms.
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ABSTRACT: The Golgi apparatus has many important physiological functions, including sorting of secretory cargo and biosynthesis of complex glycans. These functions depend on the intricate and compartmentalized organization of the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate Golgi architecture, we developed a quantitative morphological assay using three different Golgi compartment markers and quantitative image analysis, and performed a kinome- and phosphatome-wide RNAi screen in HeLa cells. Depletion of 159 signaling genes, nearly 20% of genes assayed, induced strong and varied perturbations in Golgi morphology. Using bioinformatics data, a large regulatory network could be constructed. Specific subnetworks are involved in phosphoinositides regulation, acto-myosin dynamics and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Most gene depletion also affected Golgi functions, in particular glycan biosynthesis, suggesting that signaling cascades can control glycosylation directly at the Golgi level. Our results provide a genetic overview of the signaling pathways that control the Golgi apparatus in human cells.Molecular Systems Biology 12/2012; 8:629. · 11.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the successful treatment of many malignancies, including neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. Therefore, current attempts to improve the survival of neuroblastoma patients, as well as those with other cancers, largely depend on strategies to counter cancer cell drug resistance; hence, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate resistance to chemotherapeutics. The levels of LIM-kinase 2 (LIMK2) are increased in neuroblastoma cells selected for their resistance to microtubule-targeted drugs, suggesting that LIMK2 might be a possible target to overcome drug resistance. Here, we report that depletion of LIMK2 sensitizes SHEP neuroblastoma cells to several microtubule-targeted drugs, and that this increased sensitivity correlates with enhanced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that LIMK2 modulates microtubule acetylation and the levels of tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein 1 (TPPP1), suggesting that LIMK2 may participate in the mitotic block induced by microtubule-targeted drugs through regulation of the microtubule network. Moreover, LIMK2-depleted cells also show an increased sensitivity to certain DNA-damage agents, suggesting that LIMK2 might act as a general pro-survival factor. Our results highlight the exciting possibility of combining specific LIMK2 inhibitors with anticancer drugs in the treatment of multi-drug resistant cancers.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72850. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastasis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. An understanding of the genes that regulate metastasis and development of therapies to target these genes is needed urgently. Since members of the LIM kinase (LIMK) family are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in cell motility and invasion, LIMK is considered to be a good therapeutic target for metastatic disease. Here we investigated the consequences of LIMK inhibition on growth and metastasis of human and mouse mammary tumors. LIMK activity was reduced in tumor cells by expression of dominant-negative LIMK1, by RNA interference or with a selective LIMK inhibitor. The extent of phosphorylation of the LIMK substrate, cofilin, of proliferation and invasion in 2D and 3D culture and of tumor growth and metastasis in mice were assessed. Inhibition of LIMK activity efficiently reduced the pro-invasive properties of tumor cells in vitro. Tumors expressing dominant-negative LIMK1 grew more slowly and were less metastatic in mice. However, systemic administration of a LIMK inhibitor did not reduce either primary tumor growth or spontaneous metastasis. Surprisingly, metastasis to the liver was increased after administration of the inhibitor. These data raise a concern about the use of systemic LIMK inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 12/2012; · 3.46 Impact Factor