Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in biopsy and fine needle aspiration material can pose difficult problems. This is particularly so in the fibrolamellar variant of the tumour (FLHCC) which has biological features distinctly different from those of common HCC (CHCC). Expression of CD99, a membrane localised glycoprotein which is known to be a feature of diagnostic importance in several malignant neoplasms was looked for in immunohistochemical preparation of tissue material from 18 cases of HCC, 6 FLHCC and 12 CHCC accessioned in our department. Positive staining of variable degrees and intesity was observed in all 18 cases. Non-neoplastic hepatocytes, normal or others and all the 18 other cases of non-HCC cancers outside the liver or metastatic within the liver were negative. In some cases, mostly of FLHCC, a definitive diagnosis could be suggested on the basis of CD99 positivity. It is concluded that in cases of HCC, particularly in small specimens and in FLHCC, immunostaining for CD99 will be of significant help in diagnosis.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To enhance glioblastoma (GB) marker discovery we compared gene expression in glioblastoma with human normal brain (NB).
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to determine the genes differentially expressed between glioblastoma and human NB by accessing SAGEmap NCBI web site.
Of 117 genes with more than 5-fold difference (P less, not similar 0.05) found by comparison of five GB vs. two NB SAGE libraries, 24 had an increased expression in GB. High expression of 10 genes in GB as well as in GB cell lines suggested that expression in the bulk tumors originated from transformed cells.
Since the highest expression levels of these 24 genes were mostly found in GB, they can be viewed as molecular markers in the analysis of malignant progression of astrocytic tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHLCC) generally occurs in young individuals lacking a background of chronic liver disease and other risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical presentations of FLHCC are generally nonspecific, and the alpha-fetoprotein level is typically within the normal range in most cases. Imaging studies have a major role in clinical diagnosis, but pathology is the gold standard in confirming diagnosis. Pathological characteristics of FLHCC include the presence of tumor cells with a deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm and macronucleoli surrounded by abundant fibrous bands. The most effective treatment for FLHCC is aggressive surgical resection. This comprehensive literature review gives a full account of the clinical, pathological, and molecular features of FLHCC.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2009; 104(10):2617-24; quiz 2625. DOI:10.1038/ajg.2009.440 · 10.76 Impact Factor