Nutritional plan: matching diet to disease.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri at Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.
Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice (Impact Factor: 0.82). 03/2004; 19(1):9-21. DOI: 10.1053/S1096-2867(03)00081-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Institution of appropriate, timely nutritional support in the anorexic or critically ill patient has become accepted medical practice in people and animals. This article focuses on the benefits of appropriate nutrient intake in critically ill animals, recommended nutrient requirements for dogs and cats receiving enteral feeding, and mechanics of food preparation and delivery for a variety of feeding tubes. General nutrient requirements for all patients, specific recommendations for certain illnesses such as renal failure, pancreatitis, and hepatic disease, and nutritional alterations for critical illness are reviewed. Commercial liquid diets manufactured for people and pets, and pet-food diets practical for formulation of gruel are presented. Institution of and weaning from feeding are explained.

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    EMC - Vétérinaire 11/2013; 10(4):1-8. DOI:10.1016/S1283-0828(13)63805-3
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    ABSTRACT: Objective – To evaluate the complications and outcome associated with different nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding techniques in cats with suspected acute pancreatitis.Design – Descriptive retrospective case seriesSetting – Small animal emergency and referral hospitalAnimals – The patient database (2001-2006) was searched for cats with suspected acute pancreatitis that received NGT liquid enteral feeding within 72 hours of admission and ≥12 hours during hospitalization.Measurements and Main Results – Signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory data and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations were used for suspected diagnosis. Cats were grouped based upon whether they received bolus feeding or continuous rate infusion (CRI) of a liquid diet via the NGT, and whether or not administration of an intravenous amino acid and carbohydrate solution occurred prior to NGT feeding (AAS and non-AAS group, respectively). Fifty-five cats were included. For all cats, NGT feeding was initiated at a mean of 33.5 ± 15.0 hours and the target caloric intake (1.2 X {(30 X BW [kg]) +70}) was reached at 58.0 ± 28.4 hours from presentation. There was a significantly longer time from admission to the initiation of NGT feeding in the 34/55 cats in the AAS group vs. the 21/55 cats in the non-AAS group (P = 0.009). The 8 bolus-fed cats took longer to reach target caloric intake vs. the 47 CRI-fed cats (P = 0.002). Complications associated with NGT feeding for all cats included: mechanical problems (13%), diarrhea (25%), vomiting following NGT placement (20%) and vomiting following NGT feeding (13%). Mean time to discharge for all cats occurred after 78.6 ± 29.5 hours with an overall weight gain of 0.08 ± 0.52 kg. Fifty cats survived 28 days post-discharge.Conclusions – NGT feeding in this group of cats with suspected acute pancreatitis was well tolerated, and associated with a low incidence of diarrhea, vomiting, and mechanical complications.
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    ABSTRACT: To review current and emerging nutritional approaches in the management of acute pancreatitis (AP) in people, dogs, and cats, and to provide a framework for further investigation in this field. Veterinary retrospective studies and reviews, human prospective clinical trials and reviews, and experimental animal studies focusing on nutritional management during AP. Nutritional management is an important part of the treatment plan for patients with AP. In human medicine, the general approach for providing nutrition in patients with AP has changed in recent years and favors enteral over parenteral nutrition with an emphasis on early enteral nutrition (EN). Although there are limited data available, there is increasing evidence in the veterinary literature that supports the beneficial role of EN in AP and contradicts previous assumptions about poor tolerance to enteral feeding in this patient population. Parenteral nutrition may be appropriate alone or in combination with EN as a temporary measure in malnourished patients that do not tolerate adequate EN; however, enteral feeding should be attempted first in most cases. Immunonutrition is being investigated for its positive role in modulating pancreatic inflammation and improving gut barrier function in cases of human AP. The nutritional management of veterinary patients with AP remains challenging. Based on clinical evidence in people, experimental animal studies, and preliminary studies in dogs and cats, the choice of EN over parenteral nutritional support during AP in dogs and cats appears to be beneficial and well tolerated. Optimization of nutritional therapies in dogs and cats including the use of immunonutrition during AP warrants further investigation.
    04/2014; DOI:10.1111/vec.12180


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