Induction of cytokines by toxins that have an identical RNA N-glycosidase activity: Shiga toxin, ricin, and modeccin.
ABSTRACT Shiga toxin (Stx) has an A1-B5 subunit structure, and the A subunit is an RNA N-glycosidase that inhibits cellular protein synthesis. We previously reported that in Caco-2 cells Stx induced cytokines and that the RNA N-glycosidase activity was essential for the cytokine induction. It is known that the binding of the Stx-B subunit to its receptor glycolipid, Gb3, mediates an A subunit-independent signal in some types of cells, but the involvement of this signal in the cytokine induction is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether RNA N-glycosidase itself induces cytokines. IL-8 production was enhanced by Stx, ricin, and modeccin, three toxins that inhibit protein synthesis through an identical RNA N-glycosidase activity, but not by two other types of protein synthesis inhibitors, diphtheria toxin and cycloheximide. The RNA N-glycosidase-type toxins showed a similar induction pattern of cytokine mRNAs. Brefeldin A, a Golgi apparatus inhibitor, completely suppressed the cytokine induction by the toxins. Analysis by using inhibitors of toxin binding and also Stx-B subunit showed that the cytokine-inducing activity was independent of Gb3-mediated signaling. These results indicate that RNA N-glycosidase itself induces the cytokine production and that intracellular transport of toxins through the Golgi apparatus is essential for the activity.
- SourceAvailable from: Vadim Tsvetnitsky01/2014; , ISBN: 978-1-60805-879-2
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ABSTRACT: Ricin is a toxin isolated from castor beans that has potential as a weapon of bioterrorism. This glycoprotein consists of an A-chain (RTA) that damages the ribosome and inhibits protein synthesis and a B-chain that plays a role in cellular uptake. Ricin activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signaling pathways; however, a role for these pathways in ricin-induced cell death has not been investigated. Our goals were to determine if RTA alone could activate apoptosis and if the JNK and p38 pathways were required for this response. Comparable caspase activation was observed with both ricin and RTA treatment in the immortalized, nontransformed epithelial cell line, MAC-T. Ribosome depurination and inhibition of protein synthesis were induced in 2-4h with 1microg/ml RTA and within 4-6h with 0.1microg/ml RTA. Apoptosis was not observed until 4h of treatment with either RTA concentration. RTA activated JNK and p38 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner that preceded increases in apoptosis. Inhibition of the JNK pathway reduced RTA-induced caspase activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. In contrast, inhibition of the p38 pathway had little effect on RTA-induced caspase 3/7 activation. These studies are the first to demonstrate a role for the JNK signaling pathway in ricin-induced cell death. In addition, the MAC-T cell line is shown to be a sensitive in vitro model system for future studies using RTA mutants to determine relationships between RTA-induced depurination, ribotoxic stress, and apoptosis in normal epithelial cells.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 09/2009; 41(12):2503-10. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.08.007 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Translational inhibitors such as the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and ribosomal inhibitory proteins (RIPs) induce mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-driven chemokine and cytokine production by a mechanism known as the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) associates with the ribosome making it uniquely positioned to sense 28S ribosomal RNA damage and initiate the RSR. We have previously shown that PKR mediates DON-induced MAPK phosphorylation in macrophages and monocytes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that PKR is essential for induction of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in monocytes by DON and two prototypical RIPs, ricin, and Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1). Preincubation of human monocytic U937 cells with the PKR inhibitors C16 and 2-aminopurine (2-AP) blocked DON-induced expression of IL-8 protein and mRNA. Induction of IL-8 expression was similarly impaired in U937 cells stably transfected with a dominant negative PKR plasmid (UK9M) as compared with cells transfected with control plasmid (UK9C). Nuclear factor-kappa B binding, which has been previously shown to be a requisite for DON-induced IL-8 transcription, was markedly reduced in UK9M cells as compared with UK9C cells. As observed for DON, ricin-, and Stx1-induced IL-8 expression was suppressed by the PKR inhibitors C16 and 2-AP as well as impaired in UK9M cells. Taken together, these data indicate that PKR plays a common role in IL-8 induction by DON and the two RIPs, suggesting that this kinase might be a critical factor in RSR.Toxicological Sciences 08/2008; 105(2):322-30. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfn128 · 4.48 Impact Factor