Unusual shelters occupied by Brazilian hermit crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Diogenidae).
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ABSTRACT: Hermit crabs of the species Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852) parasitized by the poorly known colonial rhizocephalan Peltogasterella socialis (Müller, 1863), were collected in the infralittoral rocky/sandy area of Anchieta Island (São Paulo), Brazil. We report the presence and pattern of occurrence of this rhizocephalan in the P. criniticornis population. The hermit crabs were obtained monthly during 1999 by two people using SCUBA methods. A total of 992 hermit crabs were captured and examined for rhizocephalans. The studied population showed non-normal size distribution and only 2.11% of the sample specimens carried externae of P. socialis. The parasite occurrence was seasonal and varied with host size. Some signs of feminization were observed on P. criniticornis pleopods (elongation of the endopod and reduction of the exopod of pleopods for males and reduction in the size of endopods for females). This is the first report on this parasite/host relationship for this South American host species. This is the first record of P. socialis (Müller, 1863) subsequent to the species' description, and possible occurrence of the parasite on hermit crabs in the Bahamas is also reported.Animal Biology 07/2007; 57(3):315-327. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An unidentified species of hermit crab from the Maldives was photographed using a plastic box as shelter instead of a natural shell. This could be a result of increased pollution and shell collection disrupting the natural processes in coral reefs.Marine Biodiversity Records 06/2008; 2:e33.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the shell occupation pattern of Pagurus exilis using the percentage of shell types that were occupied and the morphometric relationship between hermits and occupied shells. Specimens were collected monthly from July 2001 to June 2003. A total of 1737 individuals were collected, occupying 19 gastropod shell species. Buccinanops gradatum (82%) was the most occupied shell, followed by Natica isabelleana (6.4%), Stramonita haemastoma (3.2%), and Cymatium parthenopeum (2.2%). There was a differential shell utilization pattern between sexes; males occupied larger and heavier shells while the non‐ovigerous females occupied the lightest ones. Pagurus exilis occupied more bare shells instead of incrusted ones. Buccinanops gradatum was the most occupied shell species as a function of its availability in the survey, and this occupation is strongly associated with the higher internal volume presented by these shells.Journal of Natural History 01/2006; 40(1-2):77-87. · 0.78 Impact Factor
Braz. J. Biol., 63(4): 721-722, 2003
UNUSUAL SHELTERS OCCUPIED BY HERMIT CRABS721
UNUSUAL SHELTERS OCCUPIED BY BRAZILIAN HERMIT
CRABS (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA: DIOGENIDAE)
GARCIA, R. B., MEIRELES, A. L. and MANTELATTO, F. L.
Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo
(USP), Av. Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Correspondence to: Fernando L. Mantelatto, Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras
de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Av. Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto,
São Paulo, Brazil, e-mail: email@example.com
Received May 10, 2002 – Accepted July 11, 2002 – Distributed November 30, 2003
(With 1 figure)
Hermit crabs are commonly found occupying
gastropod shells. However, some hermits are known
to utilize a variety of alternative shelters such as
tusk shells, serpulid tubes, cavities of stones, sponges,
dead corals, pieces of bamboo, bivalve shells (see
Imafuku & Ando, 1999), and/or a variety of
gastropod shells with the exterior surface colonized
by organisms that affect shell selection (see Brooks
& Mariscal, 1985). Despite the 47 hermit crab
species recorded in Brazilian waters (Melo, 1999;
Mantelatto et al., 2001; Nucci & Melo, 2003), there
have been no reports on type of shelters other than
gastropod shells occupied by hermit crabs on the
In December 2000, a male of Dardanus venosus
(H. Milne Edwards, 1848), and a female of Paguristes
erythrops Holthuis, 1959 (3.2 and 3.9 mm in shield
length, SL, respectively), were caught by SCUBA
methods on the rocky surface of the infralittoral area
(9 m depth) of Anchieta Island (23o33’S, 45o05’W),
Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The male D.
venosus inhabited a bivalve shell (shell aperture width,
SAW = 10.0 mm; shell aperture length, SAL = 9.4
mm) of Chama congregata Conrad, 1833 (Fig. 1A),
and the female P. erythrops a gastropod shell (SAW =
3.8 mm and SAL = 6.7 mm) of Favartia cellulosa
(Conrad, 1846) totally covered by live corals of
Astrangia rathbuni (Vaughan, 1906) (Fig. 1B).
On February 2001, one male and one female (6.9
and 3.0 mm of SL, respectively) of Dardanus insignis
(Saussure, 1858) were collected on soft bottom substrate
(35 to 45 m depth) with a double-rig trawl net in
Caraguatatuba Bay (23o 57’S, 45o 28’W), and São
Sebastião Island region (23o44’S, 45o02’W), northern
coast of São Paulo State. The male inhabited a barnacle
shell (SAW = 14.4 mm and SAL = 12.3 mm) of
Balanus venustus (Darwin, 1854) covered by small
cirriped shells of the same species (Fig. 1C); and the
female inhabited a gastropod shell (SAW = 5.0 mm
and SAL = 10.0 mm) of Fusinus brasiliensis (Grabau,
1904) covered by a colony of unknown bryozoan (Fig.
1D). Voucher specimens collected are deposited in
the Crustacean Collection of the Biology Department
of FFCLRP, University of São Paulo, Brazil (DB/
FFCLRP/USP 1087 to 1090).
As far as we known, the present communication
is the first report of uncommon shelters used by hermit
crabs in shallow waters of the Brazilian coast. It is
important to note that the majority of specimens in
all species reported here were found occupying
gastropod shells in the natural populations (99.8%
of the total) studied in the same region (Mantelatto
et al., 2001; Mantelatto & Garcia, 2002).
No deformities in pleopod, abdomen or
pereopod morphology were observed in these hermit
crabs. However, the length of the exopod of the
uropods were measured, and the asymmetry index
(AI) was calculated following Van Valen (1962);
AI = (L – R)/(L + R), with L and R being left and
right measurements, respectively. The index varies
from +1 (left longer) to –1 (right longer), with 0
indicating perfect symmetry. The female D. insignis
had almost symmetrical uropods (0.15), while the
others presented markedly left-biased asymmetrical
uropods (0.24 for D. venosus; 0.21 for male of D.
insignis; and 0.24 for P. erythrops). The present study
reports isolated cases of uncommon hermit crab
shelters in the São Paulo coast.
NOTE AND COMMENTS
Braz. J. Biol., 63(4): 721-722, 2003
722GARCIA, R. B., MEIRELES, A. L. and MANTELATTO, F. L.
Acknowledgments — The authors are grateful to FAPESP (Grants
98/07454-5; 99/11679-5; 00/02554-3; 98/07090-3) for financial
support in sampling work. Special thanks are due to Drs. Osmar
Domaneschi (IB – USP), Fabio Pitombo (UFRRJ), Alvaro
Migotto (CEBIMar – USP), and Adilson Fransozo (UNESP)
for assistance with shell, cirriped, and coral species identification,
and for making available hermits collected during BIOTA/
FAPESP program, respectively.
BROOKS, W. R. & MARISCAL, R. N., 1985, Shell entry and
shell selection of hydroid-colonized shells by three species
of hermit crabs from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Biol. Bull.,
IMAFUKU, M. & ANDO, T., 1999, Behaviour and morphology
of pagurid hermit crabs (Decapoda, Anomura) that live in tusk
shells (Mollusca, Scaphopoda). Crustaceana, 72: 129-144.
MANTELATTO, F. L. M. & GARCIA, R. B., 2002, Hermit crab
fauna from the infralittoral zone of Anchieta Island (Ubatuba,
Brazil). In: E. E. Briones & F. Alvarez. Modern approaches
to the studies of crustacea. Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Publishers, New York, pp. 137-143.
MANTELATTO, F. L. M., GARCIA, R. B., MARTINELLI, J.
M. & HEBLING, N. J., 2001, On a record of Dardanus
venosus (H. Milne Edwards) (Crustacea, Anomura) from
the São Paulo State, Brazil. Revta. Bras. Zool., 18: 71-73.
MELO, G. A. S., 1999, Manual de identificação dos Crustacea
Decapoda do litoral brasileiro: Anomura, Thalassinidea,
Palinuridea e Astacidea. Plêiade Editora, São Paulo, 551p.
NUCCI, P. R. & MELO, G. A. S., 2003, A new species of
Pagurus (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from Brazil. J.
Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K., 83: 351-353.
VAN VALEN, L., 1962, A study of fluctuating asymmetry.
Evolution, 16: 125-142.
Fig. 1 — Uncommon shelters occupied by hermit crabs in Ubatuba region. A) A male of Dardanus venosus inhabiting a bi-
valve shell of Chama congregata; B) a female of Paguristes erythrops inhabiting a gastropod shell of Favartia cellulosa to-
tally covered by live corals of Astrangia rathbuni; C) a male of Dardanus insignis inhabiting a barnacle shell of Balanus venustus
totally covered by small shells of the same species; D) a female of Dardanus insignis inhabiting a gastropod shell of Fusinus
brasiliensis covered by a colony of unknown bryozoan.