Unique biochemical and behavioral alterations in Drosophila shibire(ts1) mutants imply a conformational state affecting dynamin subcellular distribution and synaptic vesicle cycling.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Journal of Neurobiology (Impact Factor: 3.05). 12/2002; 53(3):319-29. DOI: 10.1002/neu.10101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dynamin is a GTPase protein that is essential for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes. The Drosophila dynamin mutation shi(ts1) changes a single residue (G273D) at the boundary of the GTPase domain. In cell fractionation of homogenized fly heads without monovalent cations, all dynamin was in pellet fractions and was minimally susceptible to Triton-X extraction. Addition of Na(+) or K(+) can extract dynamin to the cytosolic (supernatant) fraction. The shi(ts1) mutation reduced the sensitivity of dynamin to salt extraction compared with other temperature-sensitive alleles or wild type. Sensitivity to salt extraction in shi(ts1) was enhanced by GTP and nonhydrolyzable GTP-gammaS. The shi(ts1) mutation may therefore induce a conformational change, involving the GTP binding site, that affects dynamin aggregation. Temperature-sensitive shibire mutations are known to arrest endocytosis at restrictive temperatures, with concomitant accumulation of presynaptic collared pits. Consistent with an effect upon dynamin aggregation, intact shi(ts1) flies recovered much more slowly from heat-induced paralysis than did other temperature-sensitive shibire mutants. Moreover, a genetic mutation that lowers GTP abundance (awd(msf15)), which reduces the paralytic temperature threshold of other temperature-sensitive shibire mutations that lie closer to consensus GTPase motifs, did not reduce the paralytic threshold of shi(ts1). Taken together, the results may link the GTPase domain to conformational shifts that influence aggregation in vitro and endocytosis in vivo, and provide an unexpected point of entry to link the biophysical properties of dynamin to physiological processes at synapses.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic manipulation of individual neurons provides a powerful approach toward understanding their contribution to stereotypic behaviors. We describe and evaluate a method for identifying candidate interneurons and associated neuropile compartments that mediate Drosophila larval locomotion. We created Drosophila larvae that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a shibire(ts1) (shi(ts1)) transgene (a temperature-sensitive neuronal silencer) in small numbers of randomly selected cholinergic neurons. These larvae were screened for aberrant behavior at an elevated temperature (31-32°C). Among larvae with abnormal locomotion or sensory-motor responses, some had very small numbers of GFP-labeled temperature-sensitive interneurons. Labeled ascending interneurons projecting from the abdominal ganglia to specific brain neuropile compartments emerged as candidates for mediation of larval locomotion. Random targeting of small sets of neurons for functional evaluation, together with anatomical mapping of their processes, provides a tool for identifying the regions of the central nervous system that are required for normal locomotion. We discuss the limitations and advantages of this approach to discovery of interneurons that regulate motor behavior.
    Genes Brain and Behavior 09/2011; 10(8):883-900. · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Not available Neuroscience, Institute for
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dynamin is a well-known regulator of synaptic endocytosis. Temperature-sensitive dynamin (shi(ts1)) mutations in Drosophila melanogaster or deletion of some of the mammalian Dynamins causes the accumulation of invaginated endocytic pits at synapses, sometimes also on bulk endosomes, indicating impaired membrane scission. However, complete loss of dynamin function has not been studied in neurons in vivo, and whether Dynamin acts in different aspects of synaptic vesicle formation remains enigmatic. We used acute photoinactivation and found that loss of Dynamin function blocked membrane recycling and caused the buildup of huge membrane-connected cisternae, in contrast to the invaginated pits that accumulate in shi(ts1) mutants. Moreover, photoinactivation of Dynamin in shi(ts1) animals converted these pits into bulk cisternae. Bulk membrane retrieval has also been seen upon Clathrin photoinactivation, and superresolution imaging indicated that acute Dynamin photoinactivation blocked Clathrin and α-adaptin relocalization to synaptic membranes upon nerve stimulation. Hence, our data indicate that Dynamin is critically involved in the stabilization of Clathrin- and AP2-dependent endocytic pits.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2014; · 10.82 Impact Factor


Available from
May 16, 2014