Unique biochemical and behavioral alterations in Drosophila shibire(ts1) mutants imply a conformational state affecting dynamin subcellular distribution and synaptic vesicle cycling.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Journal of Neurobiology (Impact Factor: 3.84). 11/2002; 53(3):319-29. DOI: 10.1002/neu.10101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dynamin is a GTPase protein that is essential for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes. The Drosophila dynamin mutation shi(ts1) changes a single residue (G273D) at the boundary of the GTPase domain. In cell fractionation of homogenized fly heads without monovalent cations, all dynamin was in pellet fractions and was minimally susceptible to Triton-X extraction. Addition of Na(+) or K(+) can extract dynamin to the cytosolic (supernatant) fraction. The shi(ts1) mutation reduced the sensitivity of dynamin to salt extraction compared with other temperature-sensitive alleles or wild type. Sensitivity to salt extraction in shi(ts1) was enhanced by GTP and nonhydrolyzable GTP-gammaS. The shi(ts1) mutation may therefore induce a conformational change, involving the GTP binding site, that affects dynamin aggregation. Temperature-sensitive shibire mutations are known to arrest endocytosis at restrictive temperatures, with concomitant accumulation of presynaptic collared pits. Consistent with an effect upon dynamin aggregation, intact shi(ts1) flies recovered much more slowly from heat-induced paralysis than did other temperature-sensitive shibire mutants. Moreover, a genetic mutation that lowers GTP abundance (awd(msf15)), which reduces the paralytic temperature threshold of other temperature-sensitive shibire mutations that lie closer to consensus GTPase motifs, did not reduce the paralytic threshold of shi(ts1). Taken together, the results may link the GTPase domain to conformational shifts that influence aggregation in vitro and endocytosis in vivo, and provide an unexpected point of entry to link the biophysical properties of dynamin to physiological processes at synapses.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A prevailing hypothesis is that the set of genes that underlie the endophenotypes of alcoholism overlap with those responsible for the addicted state. Functional ethanol tolerance, an endophenotype of alcoholism, is defined as a reduced response to ethanol caused by prior ethanol exposure. The neuronal origins of functional rapid tolerance are thought to be a homeostatic response of the nervous system that counters the effects of the drug. Synaptic proteins that regulate neuronal activity are an important evolutionarily conserved target of ethanol. We used mutant analysis in Drosophila to identify synaptic proteins that are important for the acquisition of rapid tolerance to sedation with ethanol. Tolerance was assayed by sedating flies with ethanol vapor and comparing the recovery time of flies after their first sedation and their second sedation. Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants that alter key facets of synaptic neurotransmission, such as the propagation of action potentials, synaptic vesicle fusion, exocytosis, and endocytosis, were tested for the ability to acquire functional tolerance at both the permissive and restrictive temperatures. The shibire gene encodes Drosophila Dynamin. We tested 2 temperature-sensitive alleles of the gene. The shi(ts1) allele blocked tolerance at both the permissive and restrictive temperatures, while shi(ts2) blocked only at the restrictive temperature. Using the temperature-sensitive property of shi(ts2) , we showed that Dynamin function is required concomitant with exposure to ethanol. A temperature-sensitive allele of the Syntaxin 1A gene, Syx1A(3-69), also blocked the acquisition of ethanol tolerance. We have shown that shibire and Syntaxin 1A are required for the acquisition of rapid functional tolerance to ethanol. Furthermore, the shibire gene product, Dynamin, appears to be required for an immediate early response to ethanol that triggers a cellular response leading to rapid functional tolerance.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2011; 36(1):24-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01587.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dynamin is a well-known regulator of synaptic endocytosis. Temperature-sensitive dynamin (shi(ts1)) mutations in Drosophila melanogaster or deletion of some of the mammalian Dynamins causes the accumulation of invaginated endocytic pits at synapses, sometimes also on bulk endosomes, indicating impaired membrane scission. However, complete loss of dynamin function has not been studied in neurons in vivo, and whether Dynamin acts in different aspects of synaptic vesicle formation remains enigmatic. We used acute photoinactivation and found that loss of Dynamin function blocked membrane recycling and caused the buildup of huge membrane-connected cisternae, in contrast to the invaginated pits that accumulate in shi(ts1) mutants. Moreover, photoinactivation of Dynamin in shi(ts1) animals converted these pits into bulk cisternae. Bulk membrane retrieval has also been seen upon Clathrin photoinactivation, and superresolution imaging indicated that acute Dynamin photoinactivation blocked Clathrin and α-adaptin relocalization to synaptic membranes upon nerve stimulation. Hence, our data indicate that Dynamin is critically involved in the stabilization of Clathrin- and AP2-dependent endocytic pits.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2014; DOI:10.1083/jcb.201310090 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic manipulation of individual neurons provides a powerful approach toward understanding their contribution to stereotypic behaviors. We describe and evaluate a method for identifying candidate interneurons and associated neuropile compartments that mediate Drosophila larval locomotion. We created Drosophila larvae that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a shibire(ts1) (shi(ts1)) transgene (a temperature-sensitive neuronal silencer) in small numbers of randomly selected cholinergic neurons. These larvae were screened for aberrant behavior at an elevated temperature (31-32°C). Among larvae with abnormal locomotion or sensory-motor responses, some had very small numbers of GFP-labeled temperature-sensitive interneurons. Labeled ascending interneurons projecting from the abdominal ganglia to specific brain neuropile compartments emerged as candidates for mediation of larval locomotion. Random targeting of small sets of neurons for functional evaluation, together with anatomical mapping of their processes, provides a tool for identifying the regions of the central nervous system that are required for normal locomotion. We discuss the limitations and advantages of this approach to discovery of interneurons that regulate motor behavior.
    Genes Brain and Behavior 09/2011; 10(8):883-900. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00729.x · 3.51 Impact Factor


Available from
May 16, 2014