Article

The University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA.
Current Psychiatry Reports (Impact Factor: 3.05). 05/2004; 6(2):96-100. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-004-0048-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over the past decade, the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index has been one of the most widely used instruments for the assessment of traumatized children and adolescents. This paper reviews its development and modifications that have been made as the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder have evolved. The paper also provides a description of standard methods of administration, procedures for scoring, and psychometric properties. The Reaction Index has been extensively used across a variety of trauma types, age ranges, settings, and cultures. It has been broadly used across the US and around the world after major disasters and catastrophic violence as an integral component of public mental health response and recovery programs. The Reaction Index forms part of a battery that can be efficiently used to conduct needs assessment, surveillance, screening, clinical evaluation, and treatment outcome evaluation after mass casualty events.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Alan Steinberg, Jul 02, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
262 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The serious illness or death of a caregiver are two of the most distressing events that can befall a child, and are often temporally linked. Although both adversities may impact children’s mental health, studies have not yet attempted to disentangle the effects of parental illness versus those of parental death with regard to children’s psychological functioning. Further, there has been little empirical investigation of potential factors that may diminish risk for psychopathology following either of these adversities. The current study evaluated levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in youth age 7–13 grappling with either parental cancer (N = 31) or parental death (N = 32) and examined potential predictors of these mental health outcomes across both groups of children. Youth contending with parental cancer exhibited lower levels of PTSS than children who had experienced the death of a parent, but both groups exhibited similar levels of anxiety and depression. Expressive coping was associated with lower levels of PTSS, anxiety, and depression across both groups. An interaction effect revealed that for the bereaved group only, positive parental reinforcement and supportive caregiver communication were inversely associated with PTSS. These findings provide a foundation for future work designed to identify factors associated with distinct mental health outcomes among children facing parental cancer and/or parental death.
    Journal of Child and Family Studies 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10826-015-0198-3 · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is some evidence that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early life adversity may influence metabolic outcomes such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how these interact is not clear. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional and longitudinal study to determine how PTSD severity influences obesity, insulin sensitivity, and key measures and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. We then looked at how PTSD and early life adversity may interact to impact these same outcomes. PTSD severity is associated with increasing risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, with higher symptoms correlating with higher values of BMI, leptin, fibrinogen, and blood pressure, and lower values of insulin sensitivity. PTSD and early life adversity have an additive effect on these metabolic outcomes. The longitudinal study confirmed findings from the cross sectional study and showed that fat mass, leptin, CRP, sICAM-1, and sTNFRII were significantly increased with higher PTSD severity during a 2.5 year follow-up period. Individuals with early life adversity and PTSD are at high risk and should be monitored carefully for obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2015.01.007 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extremely poor youths working and/or living unsupervised in urban environments are a common feature in many developing low and middle income countries. Such ‘street children’ may or may not be homeless, but all are inevitably vulnerable to exploitation and violence. Furthermore, there tends to be a high prevalence of substance abuse, particularly ‘glue sniffing’, among such populations. Despite this, little is known about their mental health or cognitive development. We performed a psychiatric and neuropsychological evaluation focusing on adverse life experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse and intellectual function, with 37 former street children attending a charitable project in Quito, Ecuador’s capital city. Results revealed that the children were characterized by moderate levels of substance abuse and high rates of PTSD. Furthermore, relatively higher cognitive function was significantly linked to both PTSD and to substance abuse. Possible interpretations for these counterintuitive observations are discussed.
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 01/2015; 13(2):215-214. DOI:10.1007/s11469-014-9523-0 · 0.95 Impact Factor