The University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA.
Current Psychiatry Reports (Impact Factor: 3.24). 05/2004; 6(2):96-100. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-004-0048-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over the past decade, the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index has been one of the most widely used instruments for the assessment of traumatized children and adolescents. This paper reviews its development and modifications that have been made as the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder have evolved. The paper also provides a description of standard methods of administration, procedures for scoring, and psychometric properties. The Reaction Index has been extensively used across a variety of trauma types, age ranges, settings, and cultures. It has been broadly used across the US and around the world after major disasters and catastrophic violence as an integral component of public mental health response and recovery programs. The Reaction Index forms part of a battery that can be efficiently used to conduct needs assessment, surveillance, screening, clinical evaluation, and treatment outcome evaluation after mass casualty events.

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Available from: Alan Steinberg, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Summary scores range from 0 to 68, with higher scores indicating more severe levels of PTS symptomology. This measure has exhibited good psychometric properties (Steinberg et al. 2004) and has been utilized throughout the postdisaster research (Kelley et al. 2010; Self- Brown et al. 2013; Weems et al. 2010; Yelland et al. 2010). Internal consistency was good for this sample (α=0.92). "
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    ABSTRACT: The authors examined depression trajectories over two years among mothers exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Risk and protective factors for depression trajectories, as well as associations with child outcomes were analyzed. This study included 283 mothers (age at time 1, M = 39.20 years, SD = 7.21; 62 % African American). Mothers were assessed at four time points over two years following Hurricane Katrina. Mothers reported posttraumatic stress symptoms, hurricane exposure, traumatic life events, and social support at time 1. Depressive symptoms were modeled at times 2, 3, and 4. Youth reported their distress symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety) at time 4. Latent class growth analyses identified three maternal depression trajectories among mothers exposed to Hurricane Katrina: low (61 %), resilient (29 %), and chronic (10 %). Social support was identified as a protective factor among mothers. Three main trajectories of maternal depression following Hurricane Katrina were identified. Social support was protective for mothers. Identified trajectories were not associated with children’s distress outcomes. These results have implications for disaster responses, screening efforts, and interventions targeted towards families. Future studies warrant the investigation of additional risk and protective factors that can affect maternal and child outcomes.
    Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12144-015-9338-6 · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    • "The total score is then converted to a standardized T score. We used the 35-item UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (Elhai et al. 2013; Steinberg et al. 2004) to assess child PTSS in the context of learning either (1) that a parent had cancer, or (2) that a parent had died. Symptoms (e.g., ''I have upsetting thoughts, pictures, or sounds of what happened come into my mind when I do not want them to'') are rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (never happens) to 4 (happens most of the time). "
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    ABSTRACT: The serious illness or death of a caregiver are two of the most distressing events that can befall a child, and are often temporally linked. Although both adversities may impact children’s mental health, studies have not yet attempted to disentangle the effects of parental illness versus those of parental death with regard to children’s psychological functioning. Further, there has been little empirical investigation of potential factors that may diminish risk for psychopathology following either of these adversities. The current study evaluated levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in youth age 7–13 grappling with either parental cancer (N = 31) or parental death (N = 32) and examined potential predictors of these mental health outcomes across both groups of children. Youth contending with parental cancer exhibited lower levels of PTSS than children who had experienced the death of a parent, but both groups exhibited similar levels of anxiety and depression. Expressive coping was associated with lower levels of PTSS, anxiety, and depression across both groups. An interaction effect revealed that for the bereaved group only, positive parental reinforcement and supportive caregiver communication were inversely associated with PTSS. These findings provide a foundation for future work designed to identify factors associated with distinct mental health outcomes among children facing parental cancer and/or parental death.
    Journal of Child and Family Studies 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10826-015-0198-3 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    • "and convergent validity via its strong correlation (r=.75) with the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (Briere 1989). Additional psychometric and validity studies of this instrument are reported in Steinberg et al. (2004). As a measure of past polysubstance abuse participants were asked if they had ever used (even only once); alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, heroin, amphetamine, cocaine, hallucinogens, glue /other inhalants, or any other substances not listed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extremely poor youths working and/or living unsupervised in urban environments are a common feature in many developing low and middle income countries. Such ‘street children’ may or may not be homeless, but all are inevitably vulnerable to exploitation and violence. Furthermore, there tends to be a high prevalence of substance abuse, particularly ‘glue sniffing’, among such populations. Despite this, little is known about their mental health or cognitive development. We performed a psychiatric and neuropsychological evaluation focusing on adverse life experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse and intellectual function, with 37 former street children attending a charitable project in Quito, Ecuador’s capital city. Results revealed that the children were characterized by moderate levels of substance abuse and high rates of PTSD. Furthermore, relatively higher cognitive function was significantly linked to both PTSD and to substance abuse. Possible interpretations for these counterintuitive observations are discussed.
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 04/2015; 13(2):215-214. DOI:10.1007/s11469-014-9523-0 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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