Adult onset Still's disease and collapsing glomerulopathy: successful treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins and mycophenolate mofetil.

The Lupus Research Unit, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.
Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 4.21). 07/2004; 43(6):795-9. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh172
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this Grand Round we present a 32-yr-old African man who became severely ill after a 5-month history of weight loss, pyrexia, arthralgia, sweats and rash. He went on to develop pericarditis, pericardial effusion with tamponade, hepatomegaly with abnormal liver function tests, lymphadenopathy, massive proteinuria and required ventilatory, circulatory and renal support. The differential diagnosis was adult onset Still's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), infection and lymphoma. Primary infection and lymphoma were excluded and he was treated, with dramatic success, with intravenous immunoglobulins (i.v.IG). Subsequent renal biopsy excluded SLE but confirmed collapsing glomerulopathy. The proteinuria improved dramatically following treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. We discuss some of the difficult diagnostic and management issues raised by this patient and the different uses and mechanisms of action of i.v.IG.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 7-year-old Japanese boy with a 4-month history of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) experienced disease flare with spiking fever, exanthema and arthralgia. He then developed progressive dyspnea due to severe pericarditis, and proinflammatory hypercytokinemia was suspected. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was ineffective and echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion had persisted. Alternatively, subsequent intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy resulted in dramatic resolution of the pericardial effusion, and his general condition significantly improved within a few days. This case report may lend further support the use of IVIG for selected patients with s-JIA and severe pericarditis.
    Rheumatology International 03/2010; 32(5):1359-61. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: First described in 1971, adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare multisystemic disorder considered as a complex (multigenic) autoinflammatory syndrome. A genetic background would confer susceptibility to the development of autoinflammatory reactions to environmental triggers. Macrophage and neutrophil activation is a hallmark of AOSD which can lead to a reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. As in the latter disease, the cytotoxic function of natural killer cells is decreased in patients with active AOSD. IL-18 and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines processed through the inflammasome machinery, are key factors in the pathogenesis of AOSD; they cause IL-6 and Th1 cytokine secretion as well as NK cell dysregulation leading to macrophage activation. The clinico-biological picture of AOSD includes usually high spiking fever with joint symptoms, evanescent skin rash, sore throat, striking neutrophilic leukocytosis, hyperferritinemia with collapsed glycosylated ferritin (<20%), and abnormal liver function tests. According to the clinical presentation of the disease at diagnosis, two AOSD phenotypes may be distinguished: i) a highly symptomatic, systemic and feverish one, which would evolve into a systemic (mono- or polycyclic) pattern; ii) a more indolent one with arthritis in the foreground and poor systemic symptomatology, which would evolve into a chronic articular pattern. Steroid- and methotrexate-refractory AOSD cases benefit now from recent insights into autoinflammatory disorders: anakinra seems to be an efficient, well tolerated, steroid-sparing treatment in systemic patterns; tocilizumab seems efficient in AOSD with active arthritis and systemic symptoms while TNFα-blockers could be interesting in chronic polyarticular refractory AOSD.
    Autoimmunity reviews 03/2014; · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The management of refractory recurrent pericarditis is challenging. Previous clinical reports have noted a beneficial effect of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins (IvIgs) in isolated and systemic inflammatory disease-related forms. In this article, we analyzed retrospectively our clinical experience with IvIg therapy in a series of clinical cases of pericarditis refractory to conventional treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 9 patients (1994 to 2010) with refractory recurrent pericarditis, who received high-dose IvIg as a part of their medical treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine treatment was not discontinued during IvIg treatment. No patients had a history of autoimmune or connective tissue diseases. During an average period of 11 months from the first recurrence, patients had experienced a mean of 5 relapses before the first IvIg treatment. In 4 cases, patients showed complete clinical remission with no further relapse after the first IvIg cycle. Two patients experienced a single minor relapse, responsive to short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In 2 patients, we performed a second cycle of IvIg after a recurrence of pericarditis, with subsequent complete remission. One patient did not respond to 3 cycles of IvIg and subsequently underwent pericardial window and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. No major adverse effect was observed in consequence of IvIg administration in all the cases. In conclusion, although IvIg mode of action is still poorly understood in this setting, this treatment can be considered as an option in patients with recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional medical treatment and, in our small series, has proved to be effective in 8 of 9 cases.
    The American journal of cardiology 08/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor