Cadmium and nutritional intake in pregnant Japanese women
ABSTRACT A study to clarify the food composition and nutritional factors that contribute to the levels of blood and urinary cadmium (Cd) was conducted on 50 pregnant Japanese women with mean age of 29 years. The mean iron (Fe) intake of subjects was 9.2 mg, which is much lower than the recommended level of 20 mg for pregnant women. Cd in urine samples collected at 30-32 weeks of gestation were correlated (r = 0.354), but urinary Cd was related to age more than blood Cd. Urinary Cd and blood Cd levels were inversely related to total energy (rpartial = -0.325, and -0.334, respectively) and fat intake (rpartial = -0.419, and -0.379, respectively), even after adjustment for age. Blood Cd was also correlated to protein and iron intake (rpartial = -0.299, and -0.353, respectively). These results indicate that Cd exposure levels of pregnant women with low energy intake, especially less fat intake, were higher than those of women with more energy and fat intake. In particular, blood Cd may be affected by protein and iron intake in pregnant women with increased these nutrients demand.
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ABSTRACT: Health effects of non-occupational lifetime exposure to cadmium (Cd) are of growing concern worldwide. This overview provides some context for the current situation in coastal British Columbia, Canada, which arose in 1999 from the discovery of problematic residues of Cd in farmed Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Efforts are underway to define Cd sources and the geographical and seasonal variation of these Cd residues. The recent application by the European Community of a 1 microg Cd/g (wet weight) import limit to bivalve molluscs and the current deliberation by CODEX to adopt the same value, pose significant threats to the shellfish export trade in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Alaska), where natural oceanographic conditions and coastal geology contribute to levels of Cd that usually exceed the 1 ppm limit. Human health aspects of chronic Cd exposure comprise an active field of study (this Symposium) and the validity of existing Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake is being questioned. Bioavailability of Cd from the oyster and scallop matrix is unknown and requires study. Ramifications of this uncertainty may include damage to public perception of the safety of the cultured shellfish product, loss of export market and general undermining of an industry being encouraged by both the Province of British Columbia and Federal aquaculture initiatives. There is therefore a pressing need to redefine what the "safe" limit of lifetime Cd intake is from all sources, and determine bioavailability, specifically from bivalve molluscs. Such information would facilitate the definition of scientifically defensible Cd limits by CODEX.Toxicology Letters 04/2004; 148(3):159-69. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.10.030 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary exposure to Cadmium (Cd) is of increasing interest globally because of the adverse health effects of Cd arising from multiple sources. The assumptions used when undertaking deterministic assessment of Cd in global or regional diets have implications when applied to specific national cases representing local variation in food composition and consumption patterns different from global or regional norms. We have conducted deterministic dietary Cd exposure assessments for the South Korean population using a variety of schemes for point estimation. Consumption data from the Korean Nutrition Survey (2001 to 2003) and monitoring data from the Korea Food and Drug Administration were used as the basis for the exposure estimates. The average daily per capita Cd exposure was 14 μ g for the South Korean population, representing about 27% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) and is similar to that reported in other countries. The hazard index (HI, the ratio of total Cd exposure to the TDI) typically ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 depending on assumptions used in deterministic estimates of dietary exposure. Even though the current exposure of the South Korean population at large is found to be safe on the basis of these estimates, consideration of high-end patterns of Cd level and consumption suggests the need for continued vigilance in dietary Cd monitoring.Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 07/2008; 14(4):835-850. DOI:10.1080/10807030802235300 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We focus on the recent evidence that elucidates our understanding about the effects of cadmium (Cd) on human health and their prevention. Recently, there has been substantial progress in the exploration of the shape of the Cd concentration-response function on osteoporosis and mortality. Environmental exposure to Cd increases total mortality in a continuous fashion without evidence of a threshold, independently of kidney function and other classical factors associated with mortality including age, gender, smoking and social economic status. Pooled hazard rates of two recent environmental population based cohort studies revealed that for each doubling of urinary Cd concentration, the relative risk for mortality increases with 17% (95% CI 4.2-33.1%; P < 0.0001). Tubular kidney damage starts at urinary Cd concentrations ranging between 0.5 and 2 μg urinary Cd/g creatinine, and recent studies focusing on bone effects show increased risk of osteoporosis even at urinary Cd below 1 μg Cd/g creatinine. The non-smoking adult population has urinary Cd concentrations close to or higher than 0.5 μg Cd/g creatinine. To diminish the transfer of Cd from soil to plants for human consumption, the bioavailability of soil Cd for the plants should be reduced (external bioavailability) by maintaining agricultural and garden soils pH close to neutral (pH-H(2)O of 7.5; pH-KCL of 6.5). Reducing the systemic bioavailability of intestinal Cd can be best achieved by preserving a balanced iron status. The latter might especially be relevant in groups with a lower intake of iron, such as vegetarians, and women in reproductive phase of life. In exposed populations, house dust loaded with Cd is an additional relevant exposure route. In view of the insidious etiology of health effects associated with low dose exposure to Cd and the current European Cd intake which is close to the tolerable weekly intake, one should not underestimate the importance of the recent epidemiological evidence on Cd toxicity as to its medical and public health implications.Biology of Metals 10/2010; 23(5):769-82. DOI:10.1007/s10534-010-9343-z · 2.69 Impact Factor