Article

Cadmium and nutritional intake in pregnant Japanese women.

Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan.
Toxicology Letters (Impact Factor: 3.15). 04/2004; 148(3):171-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.09.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A study to clarify the food composition and nutritional factors that contribute to the levels of blood and urinary cadmium (Cd) was conducted on 50 pregnant Japanese women with mean age of 29 years. The mean iron (Fe) intake of subjects was 9.2 mg, which is much lower than the recommended level of 20 mg for pregnant women. Cd in urine samples collected at 30-32 weeks of gestation were correlated (r = 0.354), but urinary Cd was related to age more than blood Cd. Urinary Cd and blood Cd levels were inversely related to total energy (rpartial = -0.325, and -0.334, respectively) and fat intake (rpartial = -0.419, and -0.379, respectively), even after adjustment for age. Blood Cd was also correlated to protein and iron intake (rpartial = -0.299, and -0.353, respectively). These results indicate that Cd exposure levels of pregnant women with low energy intake, especially less fat intake, were higher than those of women with more energy and fat intake. In particular, blood Cd may be affected by protein and iron intake in pregnant women with increased these nutrients demand.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
268 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04µg/L; Pb soil <3.0µg/g; Pb dust 16.5µg/g; Pb blood 3.67µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0µg/g; Hg dust <1.0µg/g; Hg blood 0.46µg/L; Hg urine <0.40µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70µg/g (range <0.2-7.06µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects.
    Environmental Research 07/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate the risks for renal tubular damage and osteoporosis in individuals with long-term environmental Cd exposure. This cross-sectional study comprised 1,086 residents living in the vicinity of a copper refinery plant. As the urinary Cd levels increased, the proportion of female subjects with β2-MG ≥ 300 μg/g creatinine also increased significantly, but this was not observed in the male subjects. The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in men with urinary Cd >5 μg/g creatinine than in those with urinary Cd ≤5 μg/g creatinine. This difference was not observed in the corresponding female groups. The association between increased urinary excretion of β2-MG and decreased BMD was statistically significant only in the female subjects. We suggest that an increased Cd body burden directly decreases the BMD in male subjects; however, in female subjects, it first induces renal microtubular damage, which can lead to osteoporosis.
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G) diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet), or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 μg/kg of feed) or high (150 μg/kg) cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 μg 17β-estradiol (E2) daily between gestation days 10 and 19. Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone levels and reduced the expression of androgen receptor in the mammary gland. The moderate cadmium dose mimicked the effects of in utero E2 exposure on mammary gland morphology and increased both the number of terminal end buds and pre-malignant hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HANs), but in contrast to the E2, it did not increase 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of in utero cadmium exposure were dependent on the dose given to pregnant dams: Moderate, but not high, cadmium dose mimicked some of the effects seen in the in utero E2 exposed rats, such as increased HANs in the mammary gland.
    Journal of Carcinogenesis 01/2013; 12:11.

Similar Publications