Cadmium and nutritional intake in pregnant Japanese women
Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan.Toxicology Letters (Impact Factor: 3.26). 04/2004; 148(3):171-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.09.016
A study to clarify the food composition and nutritional factors that contribute to the levels of blood and urinary cadmium (Cd) was conducted on 50 pregnant Japanese women with mean age of 29 years. The mean iron (Fe) intake of subjects was 9.2 mg, which is much lower than the recommended level of 20 mg for pregnant women. Cd in urine samples collected at 30-32 weeks of gestation were correlated (r = 0.354), but urinary Cd was related to age more than blood Cd. Urinary Cd and blood Cd levels were inversely related to total energy (rpartial = -0.325, and -0.334, respectively) and fat intake (rpartial = -0.419, and -0.379, respectively), even after adjustment for age. Blood Cd was also correlated to protein and iron intake (rpartial = -0.299, and -0.353, respectively). These results indicate that Cd exposure levels of pregnant women with low energy intake, especially less fat intake, were higher than those of women with more energy and fat intake. In particular, blood Cd may be affected by protein and iron intake in pregnant women with increased these nutrients demand.
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- "Frequent consumption of these foods could result in exposure levels above the World Health Organization's (WHO) weekly tolerable intake of 7 μg/kg of body weight. Importantly, cadmium is present in the urine of pregnant women as well as their placental tissue, and it has been shown to accumulate in embryonic and foetal tissues. Thus, maternal exposure to cadmium during pregnancy impacts the fetus, perhaps by acting as an endocrine disruptor. "
ABSTRACT: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G) diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet), or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 μg/kg of feed) or high (150 μg/kg) cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 μg 17β-estradiol (E2) daily between gestation days 10 and 19. Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone levels and reduced the expression of androgen receptor in the mammary gland. The moderate cadmium dose mimicked the effects of in utero E2 exposure on mammary gland morphology and increased both the number of terminal end buds and pre-malignant hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HANs), but in contrast to the E2, it did not increase 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of in utero cadmium exposure were dependent on the dose given to pregnant dams: Moderate, but not high, cadmium dose mimicked some of the effects seen in the in utero E2 exposed rats, such as increased HANs in the mammary gland.Journal of Carcinogenesis 06/2013; 12:11. DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.114219
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- "With regard to maternal exposures, cadmium levels of this magnitude are somewhat elevated but not uncommon in other countries (40, 41), particularly in persons who consume greater amounts of rice and vegetables (42). However, the cadmium exposure levels observed among most children in this population were above the median reported for US (43) and German (44) children. "
ABSTRACT: In this prospective cohort study, based on 1,505 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh, we evaluated the associations between early-life exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead, assessed via concentrations in maternal and child urine, and children's weights and heights up to age 5 years, during the period 2001-2009. Concurrent and prenatal exposures were evaluated using linear regression analysis, while longitudinal exposure was assessed using mixed-effects linear regression. An inverse association was found between children's weight and height, age-adjusted z scores, and growth velocity at age 5 years and concurrent exposure to cadmium and arsenic. In the longitudinal analysis, multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in children's weight at age 5 years were -0.33 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.60, -0.06) for high (≥95th percentile) arsenic exposure and -0.57 kg (95% CI: -0.88, -0.26) for high cadmium exposure, in comparison with children with the lowest exposure (≤5th percentile). Multivariable-adjusted attributable differences in height were -0.50 cm (95% CI: -1.20, 0.21) for high arsenic exposure and -1.6 cm (95% CI: -2.4, -0.77) for high cadmium exposure. The associations were apparent primarily among girls. The negative effects on children's growth at age 5 years attributable to arsenic and cadmium were of similar magnitude to the difference between girls and boys in terms of weight (-0.67 kg, 95% CI: -0.82, -0.53) and height (-1.3 cm, 95% CI: -1.7, -0.89).American journal of epidemiology 05/2013; 177(12). DOI:10.1093/aje/kws437 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Health effects of non-occupational lifetime exposure to cadmium (Cd) are of growing concern worldwide. This overview provides some context for the current situation in coastal British Columbia, Canada, which arose in 1999 from the discovery of problematic residues of Cd in farmed Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Efforts are underway to define Cd sources and the geographical and seasonal variation of these Cd residues. The recent application by the European Community of a 1 microg Cd/g (wet weight) import limit to bivalve molluscs and the current deliberation by CODEX to adopt the same value, pose significant threats to the shellfish export trade in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Alaska), where natural oceanographic conditions and coastal geology contribute to levels of Cd that usually exceed the 1 ppm limit. Human health aspects of chronic Cd exposure comprise an active field of study (this Symposium) and the validity of existing Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake is being questioned. Bioavailability of Cd from the oyster and scallop matrix is unknown and requires study. Ramifications of this uncertainty may include damage to public perception of the safety of the cultured shellfish product, loss of export market and general undermining of an industry being encouraged by both the Province of British Columbia and Federal aquaculture initiatives. There is therefore a pressing need to redefine what the "safe" limit of lifetime Cd intake is from all sources, and determine bioavailability, specifically from bivalve molluscs. Such information would facilitate the definition of scientifically defensible Cd limits by CODEX.Toxicology Letters 04/2004; 148(3):159-69. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.10.030 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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