Cadmium and nutritional intake in pregnant Japanese women

Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan.
Toxicology Letters (Impact Factor: 3.26). 04/2004; 148(3):171-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.09.016
Source: PubMed


A study to clarify the food composition and nutritional factors that contribute to the levels of blood and urinary cadmium (Cd) was conducted on 50 pregnant Japanese women with mean age of 29 years. The mean iron (Fe) intake of subjects was 9.2 mg, which is much lower than the recommended level of 20 mg for pregnant women. Cd in urine samples collected at 30-32 weeks of gestation were correlated (r = 0.354), but urinary Cd was related to age more than blood Cd. Urinary Cd and blood Cd levels were inversely related to total energy (rpartial = -0.325, and -0.334, respectively) and fat intake (rpartial = -0.419, and -0.379, respectively), even after adjustment for age. Blood Cd was also correlated to protein and iron intake (rpartial = -0.299, and -0.353, respectively). These results indicate that Cd exposure levels of pregnant women with low energy intake, especially less fat intake, were higher than those of women with more energy and fat intake. In particular, blood Cd may be affected by protein and iron intake in pregnant women with increased these nutrients demand.

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    • "Frequent consumption of these foods could result in exposure levels above the World Health Organization's (WHO) weekly tolerable intake of 7 μg/kg of body weight.[17] Importantly, cadmium is present in the urine of pregnant women as well as their placental tissue,[1819] and it has been shown to accumulate in embryonic and foetal tissues.[2021] Thus, maternal exposure to cadmium during pregnancy impacts the fetus, perhaps by acting as an endocrine disruptor. "
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    • "With regard to maternal exposures, cadmium levels of this magnitude are somewhat elevated but not uncommon in other countries (40, 41), particularly in persons who consume greater amounts of rice and vegetables (42). However, the cadmium exposure levels observed among most children in this population were above the median reported for US (43) and German (44) children. "
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