Application of vernier thinning techniques to segmented annular arrays
ABSTRACT Due to the aperture periodicity, the inter-element spacing of two-dimensional squared arrays is maintained near lambda/2 in order to avoid grating lobes. This condition gives rise to severe problems derived from the huge number of array elements and from their little size that causes the signal to noise ratio to bring down. Vernier techniques have been proposed to lower the number of active elements, but the drastic reduction of the ultrasonic energy is still a great problem for the image contrast. In this work, vernier techniques for segmented annular (SA) arrays are theoretically studied. SA arrays produce lower grating lobes than squared arrays and, therefore, allow the element size to be increased beyond the lambda/2 constraint. Using larger elements, SA arrays have advantage to squared arrays because they have larger active area and smaller thinning order for the same complexity (number of channels) of the image system. Theoretical results of the vernier techniques applied to SA arrays in both radial and tangential directions are presented and compared with the equivalent squared array.
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ABSTRACT: We use auxiliary Markov chains to derive probabilistic results for five types of start-up demonstration tests, with start-ups that are Markovian of a general order. Four of the tests are based on consecutive (or total) successful start-ups and consecutive (or total) failures; the fifth has two rejection criteria. For each test type, we obtain the probability of the test ending with acceptance of the unit, the probability distribution and moments of the number of start-ups in the test, the probability of acceptance (or rejection) of the equipment in a specified number of trials, and the conditional distribution of the number of start-ups in the test given that the unit is accepted or rejected. Numerical examples are given. Though the results are for these specific types of start-up demonstration tests, the method of derivation may be used for tests with other stopping criteria, and in other situations as well.European Journal of Operational Research 01/2008; 184(2-184):574-583. DOI:10.1016/j.ejor.2006.12.009 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of placing a structural acoustic filter between water and the transducer elements of an array to help reduce undesirable grating lobes is investigated. A supercritical plate is mounted to transducer elements with a thin decoupling polyurethane layer between the transducers and the plate. The plate acts as a radiation/incidence angle filter to pass energy at angles near normal incidence, but suppress energy at large incidence angles. Grating lobe reduction is achieved at the expense of limiting the available steering of the main lobe. Within this steer angle limitation, the main lobe can be steered as normal while the grating lobe level is reduced by the plate's angular filtering. The insertion of a plate structural filter provides, in principal, an inexpensive and easily implemented approach to extend usable frequency bandwidth with reduced level grating lobes, without increasing the number of array elements. Even though the data match theory well, a practical material has yet to be found that possesses optimal material properties to make the proposed idea practical. This work represents the first attempt to advantageously utilize a plate above its critical frequency to provide angular dependent sound transmission filtering.The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 09/2009; 126(2):612-9. DOI:10.1121/1.3159366 · 1.56 Impact Factor