Accelerated evolution of brain atrophy and "black holes" in MS patients with APOE-epsilon 4.
ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 has been associated with an unfavorable course of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear, although cross-sectional MRI demonstrated a higher extent of "black holes" (BHs) in such patients. Here, we have studied the impact of the APOE genotype on both the longitudinal evolution of focal (BH ratio) and global (brain volume change [BVC]) brain tissue damage. Ninety-nine MS patients underwent ApoE genotyping, clinical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after 2.7 +/- 1.1 years to assess lesion load (LL) and BVC. In APOE-epsilon4 patients, the annual reduction in brain volume was fivefold higher (-0.65 +/- 0.61%) than in those without APOE-epsilon4 (-0.13 +/- 0.36%; p = 0.0001). At baseline, T(2) LL and T(1) LL were non-significantly higher in epsilon4 carriers, despite a shorter disease duration and absence of significant clinical differences. During follow-up, T(1) LL increased from 1.2 +/- 2.3 ccm to 1.7 +/- 2.7 ccm in the epsilon4 group, although T(2) LL did not change, leading to a significantly higher increase in the BH ratio [(T(1) LL/T(2) LL) x 100] from 5.5 to 12.4% (p = 0.005). BH ratio remained almost constant in non-epsilon4 patients (5.0 vs 5.7%). Accelerated brain tissue loss and a higher proportion of lesions evolving into BH therefore provide magnetic resonance imaging evidence for more pronounced tissue destruction in MS patients with APOE-epsilon4.
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ABSTRACT: Ageing disorders can be defined as the progressive and cumulative outcome of several defective cellular mechanisms as well as metabolic pathways, consequently resulting in degeneration. Environment plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In contrast, developmental disorders arise from inherited mutations and usually the role of environmental factors in development of disease is minimal. Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is one such retinal degenerative disorder which starts with the progression of age. Metabolism plays an important role in initiation of such diseases of ageing. Cholesterol metabolism and their oxidized products like 7-ketocholesterol have been shown to adversely impact retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These molecules can initiate mitochondrial apoptotic processes and also influence the complements factors and expression of angiogenic proteins like VEGF etc. In this review we highlight why and how AMD is an ageing disorder and not a developmental disease substantiated by disrupted cholesterol metabolism common to several age related diseases.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2014; 6:151. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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