Pattern of gastrointestinal and psychosomatic symptoms across the menstrual cycle in women with inflammatory bowel disease
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of defecation, gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms among women with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n=38) and Crohn's disease (CD) (n=21), and to compare the results with those from healthy women (n=38) across the menstrual cycle.
Women were followed for three menstrual cycles with a symptom diary consisting of frequency of defecation, and GI and non-GI symptoms. One point was allowed for each symptom in the same phases of three cycles, and total scores for GI and non-GI symptoms were obtained.
Frequency of defecation was found to be higher during menstruation in controls and in remitting UC and CD. GI symptom scores were higher in all three phases in patients with CD. These decreased in the postmenstrual phase in controls, and in patients with UC and remitting CD. In all three cycles, non-GI symptom scores were higher in patients with CD. These symptoms decreased during the postmenstrual period in all three groups. The activation of UC and CD did not affect the non-GI symptom score in the same menstrual cycle. Patients on mesalamine had less GI and non-GI complaints than those on sulfasalazine in all phases. There was no correlation between GI and non-GI symptom scores during all menstrual phases.
Cyclic pattern present in healthy women persisted in patients with UC and CD. Disease activity and the drug used may modify the severity of the symptoms.
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- "The second study prospectively evaluated 97 subjects, 59 with IBD and 38 healthy controls. Patients in both IBD and control groups reported worse GI symptoms during menses than pre- or post-menses . "
ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients. Methods: Adult women recorded in the Pouchitis Registry were invited to participate in a mailed survey. Participants reported on GI symptoms 1–5 days prior to- (pre-menses) and during the days of their menses in recent months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained through the survey and chart review. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight (21.3%) out of 600 women with IPAA responded to the survey questionnaire. Forty-three (33.5%) were excluded for reasons including post-menopausal (n = 25), hysterectomy (n = 14) and use of contraceptives (n = 4). Abdominal pain (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.021), and urgency (P = 0.031) were more commonly reported during menses than pre-menses by the participants. Only a history of painful menses was significantly associated with increased GI symptoms during menses for patients with ileal pouch (odds ratio = 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.41–22.88; P = 0.015). Conclusion: GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency are commonly associated with menses in patients with ileo-anal pouch. Painful menses may be associated with worsening of GI symptoms.07/2014; 2(3). DOI:10.1093/gastro/gou042
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- "Studies that have assessed the prevalence of various GI symptoms perimenstrually have generally concluded that GI symptoms were more common for those with GI disorders than for healthy women [1,3,14,15]. It was evident in our study that GI symptoms were quite prevalent for healthy women as well, as over 70% experienced GI symptoms in conjunction with their menstrual cycle, even when potential gynecological symptoms such as bloating were excluded. "
ABSTRACT: Little is known as to the extent gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are reported by women around menses. We aimed to describe GI symptoms that occurred premenstrually and during menses in healthy women, and to specifically assess the relationship of emotional symptoms to GI symptoms around menses. We recruited healthy, premenopausal adult women with no indication of GI, gynecologic, or psychiatric disease who were attending an outpatient gynecology clinic for well-woman care. They completed a survey that queried menstrual histories and the presence of GI and emotional symptoms. We compared the prevalence of primary GI symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting), as well as pelvic pain and bloating, in the 5 days preceding menses and during menses, and assessed whether emotional symptoms or other factors were associated with the occurrence of GI symptoms. Of 156 respondents, 73% experienced at least one of the primary GI symptoms either pre- or during menses, with abdominal pain (58% pre; 55% during) and diarrhea (24% pre; 28% during) being the most common. Those experiencing any emotional symptoms versus those without were more likely to report multiple (2 or more) primary GI symptoms, both premenstrually (depressed p = 0.006; anxiety p = 0.014) and during menses (depressed p < 0.001; anxiety p = 0.008). Fatigue was also very common (53% pre; 49% during), and was significantly associated with multiple GI symptoms in both menstrual cycle phases (pre p < 0.001; during p = 0.01). Emotional symptoms occurring in conjunction with GI symptoms are common perimenstrually, and as such may reflect shared underlying processes that intersect brain, gut, and hormonal pathways.BMC Women's Health 01/2014; 14(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1472-6874-14-14 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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- "However, their study was a retrospective study based on telephone interviews, so the subjects may have over reported their symptoms. Parlak et al.16 conducted a similar study assessing the pattern of GI and psychosomatic symptoms during the menstrual cycle in women with IBD. They demonstrated that there is a cyclic pattern in defecation during the menstrual phase.16 "
ABSTRACT: The symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) fluctuate considerably over time. However, it has not been determined whether these symptoms are affected by the menstrual cycle in female IBD patients. This study analyzed the effects of the menstrual cycle on IBD symptom variation. This was a prospective study of 91 study subjects (47 IBD patients and 44 healthy controls) who reported daily symptoms and signs throughout their menstrual cycles. IBD patients had significantly more frequent gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea (30% vs 7%, p=0.006), flatulence (53% vs 22%, p=0.003), and abdominal pain as compared to controls (68% vs 38%, p=0.006). The IBD patients also experienced more frequent systemic premenstrual symptoms than the controls (79% vs 50%, p=0.003). More severe abdominal pain (p=0.002) and lower mean general condition scores (p=0.001) were noted during the menstrual phase as compared to the pre- or post-menstrual phase in both groups. IBD patients experienced more frequent premenstrual gastrointestinal symptoms than controls, but their IBD symptoms did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of the cyclic alterations in gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms may be helpful in determining the true exacerbation of disease in female IBD patients.Gut and liver 01/2013; 7(1):51-7. DOI:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.1.51 · 1.49 Impact Factor