Phosphorus release rates from sediments and pollutant characteristics in Han River, Seoul, Korea

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 05/2004; 321(1-3):115-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.08.018
Source: PubMed


The Han River is 469.7-km long and drains a 26219-km(2) watershed. The sediments in the river are highly polluted due to inputs from upstream tributaries as well as partially treated municipal wastewaters that are discharged to the river. The water quality and strategy for control are important because the river is the primary drinking water supply for the City of Seoul, as well as being a major source for irrigation and industrial water. The Jamsil submerged dam partitions the river to isolate an upstream area for drinking water, but also captures sediments. Samples from four sites were studied to determine sediment pollutant concentrations and phosphorus release rates. Phosphorus tends to desorb from sediments when the concentration of overlying water is less than 1.4 mg/l. Water column P concentrations range from 0.04 to 0.1 mg/l, which suggests that sediments will act as a P source. In a series of batch experiments, P was released at approximately 15-20 mg/m(2)week in the winter (1-5 degrees C) and as much as 90 mg/m(2)week in the summer (20-24 degrees C), and is also a function of pH and dissolved oxygen concentration. The sediment total phosphorus concentration, which averages 833 mg/kg, is evenly distributed among non-apatite-P (33%), apatite-P (32%) and residual-P (34%). An equilibrium model is proposed to describe release rate.

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    • "Focusing on the latter topic, a number of studies had paid attention to P release from the sediment to various kinds of receiving natural water bodies such as coastal zones [8], lakes [9], and rivers [10]. Some researches examined P release in urban catchment [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and flow rate on the phosphorus (P) release processes at the sediment and water interface in rainwater pipes were investigated. The sampling was conducted in a residential storm sewer of North Li Shi Road in Xi Cheng District of Beijing on August 3, 2011. The release rate of P increased with the increase of pH from 8 to 10. High temperature is favorable for the release of P. The concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the overlying water increased as the concentration of DO decreased. With the increase of flow rate from 0.7 m s −1 to 1.1 m s −1 , the concentration of TP in the overlying water increased and then tends to be stable. Among all the factors examined in the present study, the flow rate is the primary influence factor on P release. The cumulative amount of P release increased with the process of pipeline runoff in the rainfall events with high intensities and shorter durations. Feasible measures such as best management practices and low-impact development can be conducted to control the P release on urban sediments by slowing down the flow rate.
    Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry 11/2013; 2013(15):104316. DOI:10.1155/2013/104316 · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    • "Many studies have also investigated the mechanism of how DO affects surface sediment P release and transformation. To date, however, most previous research has focused on physical and chemical mechanisms under aerobic and anoxic conditions (Gomez et al., 1999; Kim et al., 2004). Abundant benthic algae and microorganisms grow on surface sediment of shallow lakes (Mur and Schreurs, 1995), and microbial activity may influence nutrient de* Corresponding author. "
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial activity may influence phosphorus (P) deposit and release at the water sediment interface. The properties of DO (dissolved oxygen), pH, P fractions (TP, Ca-P, Fe-P, OP, IP), and APA (alkaline phosphatase activity) at the water sediment interface were measured to investigate microbial activity variations in surface sediment under conditions of two-month intermittent aeration in overlying water. Results showed that DO and TP of overlying water increased rapidly in the first week and then decreased gradually after 15 day of intermittent aeration. Microorganism metabolism in surface sediment increased pH and decreased DO and TP in the overlying water. After two-month intermittent aeration, APA and OP from surface sediment (0-2 cm) were both significantly higher than those from bottom sediment (6-8 cm) (p < 0.05), and surface sediment Fe-P was transferred to OP during the course of microorganism reproduction on the surface sediment. These results suggest that microbial activity and microorganism biomass from the surface sediment were higher than those from bottom sediment after two-month intermittent aeration in the overlying water.
    Journal of Environmental Sciences 02/2011; 23(2):206-11. DOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(10)60394-4 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    • "mg/kg for SCOD, 4.8–12.5 mg/kg for Sol N, and 1.6–3.2 mg/kg for Sol P. Compared to the values reported in Kim et al. (2004) for the Jamsil submerged dam area before dredging, the post-dredging release masses reported in this study are much smaller by a factor of 50 and 37 for SCOD and Sol P, respectively, suggesting the effectiveness of dredging. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Han River, which is the largest river in Korea, is the primary source of drinking water for the 20 million people that live in the Seoul metropolitan and surrounding areas. The sediments in the river are highly polluted due to pollutant inputs from upstream tributaries as well as from partially treated municipal wastewaters. To characterize the contamination of the sediments, disturbed and undisturbed sediment samples were periodically collected from eight locations of the mid-to-lower Han River. They were analyzed for pH, water content, total solids, ignition loss (IL), total phosphorous (TP), total Kjehldahl nitrogen (TKN), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The mean values of pollutant concentrations in disturbed sediment were determined to be 6.9% for IL, 1,700mg/kg for TP, 3,350mg/kg for TKN, and 65,710mg/kg for COD. Pollutant concentrations of undisturbed samples were found to decrease with sediment depth and time due to the removal mechanism. Monitoring of pre- and post-dredging conditions was also performed, and the results show that the pollutant concentrations decreased from those for the pre-dredging condition to 33–57% for TP, 51–64% for TKN, and 30–62% for COD. It is concluded that dredging was an effective means to reduce the internal pollutant source.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 02/2010; 206(1):263-272. DOI:10.1007/s11270-009-0103-z · 1.55 Impact Factor
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