Characterisation of DRASIC in the mouse inner ear.
ABSTRACT Within the cochlea, the hair cells detect sound waves and transduce them into receptor potential. The molecular architecture of the highly specialised cochlea is complex and until recently little was known about the molecular interactions which underlie its function. It is now clear that the coordinated expression and interplay of hundreds of genes and the integrity of cochlear cells regulate this function. It was hypothesised that transcripts expressed highly or specifically in the cochlea are likely to have important roles in normal hearing. Microarray analyses of the Soares NMIE library, consisting of 1536 cDNA clones isolated from the mouse inner ear, suggested that the expression of the mechanoreceptor DRASIC was enriched in the cochlea compared to other tissues. This amiloride-sensitive ion channel is a member of the DEG/ENaC superfamily and a potential candidate for the unidentified mechanoelectrical transduction channel of the sensory hair cells of the cochlea. The cochlear-enriched expression of amiloride-sensitive cation channel 3 (ACCN3) was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescence, DRASIC expression was localised to the cells and neural fibre region of the spiral ganglion. DRASIC protein was also detected in cells of the organ of Corti. DRASIC may be present in cochlear hair cells as the ACCN3 transcript was shown to be expressed in immortalised cell lines that exhibit characteristics of hair cells. The normal mouse ACCN3 cDNA and an alternatively spliced transcript were elucidated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from mouse inner ear RNA. This transcript may represent a new protein isoform with an as yet unknown function. A DRASIC knockout mouse model was tested for a hearing loss phenotype and was found to have normal hearing at 2 months of age but appeared to develop hearing loss early in life. The human homologue of ACCN3, acid-sensing ion channel 3, maps to the same chromosomal region as the autosomal recessive hearing loss locus DFNB13. However, we did not detect mutations in this gene in a family with DFNB13 hearing loss.
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ABSTRACT: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of infant mortality in Western societies. A prior study identified an association between hearing suppression on the newborn hearing test and subsequent death from SIDS. This is the first finding of an abnormality in SIDS cases prior to death. A following study identified that inner ear dysfunction precipitates a marked suppression of the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). Failure of arousal has been proposed to be a key component in SIDS. The objective of the present study was to assess whether inner ear dysfunction not only weakens the hypercapnic response, but also plays a role in suppressing the arousal response to suffocating gas mixtures.Neuroscience 09/2013; 253. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.08.059 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are family of proteins predominantly present in the central and peripheral nervous system. They are known to play important roles in the pathophysiology of pain and ischemic stroke. APETx2 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ASIC3-containing channels and was isolated from sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. To facilitate the study on the molecular determinants of ASIC3-ligand interactions, we expressed recombinant APETx2 in the Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression system and purified it to homogeneity. Recombinant APETx2 produced in P. pastoris inhibited the acid-evoked ASIC3 current with the IC(50) value of 37.3 nM. The potency of recombinant toxin is similar to that of native APETx2. The sequential assignment and structure analysis of APETx2 were obtained by 2D and 3D (15)N-edited NMR spectra. Our NMR data suggests that APETx2 produced in P. pastoris retained its native fold. The results presented here provide the first direct evidence that highly disulfide bonded peptide inhibitor of ASIC3, APETx2, can be expressed in P. pastoris with correct fold and high yield. We also showed that the R17A mutant exhibited a decrease in activity, suggesting the feasibility of the use of this expression system to study the interactions between APETx2 and ASIC3. These evidences may serve as the basis for understanding the selectivity and activity of APETx2.Toxicon 12/2010; 56(8):1388-97. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.08.004 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sensing external stimulation is crucial for central processing in the brain and subsequent behavioral expression. Although sensory alteration or deprivation may result in behavioral changes, most studies related to the control of behavior have focused on central mechanisms. Here we created a sensory deficit model of mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/-)) to probe behavioral alterations. ASIC3 is predominately distributed in the peripheral nervous system. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry used to examine the expression of Asic3 in the mouse brain showed near-background mRNA and protein levels of ASIC3 throughout the whole brain, except for the sensory mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. Consistent with the expression results, Asic3 knockout had no effect on synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus and the behavioral tasks of motor function, learning and memory. In anxiety behavior tasks, Asic3(-/-) mice spent more time in the open arms of an elevated plus maze than did their wild-type littermates. Asic3(-/-) mice also displayed less aggressiveness toward intruders but more stereotypic repetitive behaviors during resident-intruder testing than did wild-type littermates. Therefore, loss of ASIC3 produced behavioral changes in anxiety and aggression in mice, which suggests that ASIC3-dependent sensory activities might relate to the central process of emotion modulation.Genes Brain and Behavior 05/2010; 9(6):603-14. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2010.00591.x · 3.51 Impact Factor