Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease, but Increased Prostate Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 05/2004; 134(4):919-22.
Source: PubMed


The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate quantitatively the associations between intake of alpha-linolenic acid [ALA, the (n-3) fatty acid in vegetable oils], mortality from heart disease, and the occurrence of prostate cancer in observational studies. We identified 5 prospective cohort studies that reported intake of ALA and mortality from heart disease. We also reviewed data from 3 clinical trials on ALA intake and heart disease. In addition, we identified 9 cohort and case-control studies that reported on the association between ALA intake or blood levels and incidence or prevalence of prostate cancer. We combined risk estimates across studies using a random-effects model. High ALA intake was associated with reduced risk of fatal heart disease in prospective cohort studies (combined relative risk 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.04). Three open-label trials also indicated that ALA may protect against heart disease. However, epidemiologic studies also showed an increased risk of prostate cancer in men with a high intake or blood level of ALA (combined relative risk 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.58). This meta-analysis shows that consumption of ALA might reduce heart disease mortality. However, the association between high intake of ALA and prostate cancer is of concern and warrants further study.

17 Reads
    • "Prospective cohort studies and secondary prevention trials indicate that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish or plant sources lower the risk of CVD.[192021222324] Furthermore, since fatty acids are ligands for PPARα, we conducted this study to determine the lipid lowering effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation in PPARα polymorphism. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We determined the blood lipid-lowering effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on hypertriglyceridemic subjects with Leu162/Val in exon 5 and G/C in intron7 polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα)genotypes that, to our knowledge, have not been previously studied. A total of 170 hypertriglyceridemic subjects were enrolled and genotyped for Ala54Thr, Leu162Val, and intron7 polymorphism by the use of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. After determination of their genotypes, the first 23 eligible subjects who were found as Ala54 carriers and the first 23 eligible Thr54 carriers were enrolled in the study and stratified for PPARα genotypes. Participants took 2 g of pure EPA daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles were determined and changes from baseline were measured. We observed significant difference between EPA supplementation and Leu162 and Val162, Interon 7 (GG and GC) carriers (P < 0.001). We did not observe significant associations between the PPARα L162V single nucleotide polymorphism and multiple lipid and lipoprotein measures. Although EPA consumption lowered lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in Leu162 and Val162 carriers and Interon 7 CC and GC carriers, these differences between the studied groups were not statistically significant. EPA consumption has a lipid-lowering effect in hypertriglyceridemic subjects in both Leu162 and Val162 carriers. But there was no significant interaction between EPA supplementation and PPARα genotypes. Thus, genetic variation within the PPARα Leu162/Val cannot modulate the association of EPA intakes with lipid and lipoprotein profile. However, we must note that the sample size in this study was small.
    International journal of preventive medicine 03/2014; 5(3):333-40.
  • Source
    • "Regular flaxseed oil contains between 52% and 63% ALA (C18:3 n-3). Studies (Ramon et al., 2000; Brouwer et al., 2004) have shown a relationship between ALA and an increased risk of prostate cancer. This risk was found to be irrespective of source (e.g., meat, vegetable oil; De Stéfani et al., 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole linseed supplementation on performances and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The control group received 300 g of palm oil. The second group was supplemented with 344 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed plus 150 g of palm oil and the third group was supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed. All cows also received ad libitum grass silage (Brachiaria ruziziensis), had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit and individually fed according to treatments. Residual feeds were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly and at the end of the experiment. Feed samples were pooled to make representative samples for proximate and detergent analyses. Daily milk yields were recorded. Milk samples were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly. Live weights were recorded at the start and at the end of the experiment. Milk samples were taken on d 56 of the experiment and subjected to milk fatty acid composition. The results showed no statistical significant differences in intakes, live weight change, milk yields and milk compositions, however, C18:1, C18:3 and unsaturated FAs were increased while saturated FAs were reduced by whole linseed supplementation. It is recommended that the addition of 300 g/d oil from whole linseed could be beneficial to lactating dairy cows in early lactation.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 08/2013; 26(8). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2013.13027 · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "This compound belongs to the group of omega-3 fatty acids, commonly occurring in flaxseed, canola oil, soybeans, and walnut oils (Simopoulos 2004; Gruenwald et al. 2004). Oils rich in a-linolenic acid are used to prevent and treat heart diseases, an elevated level of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood, and hypertension (Fiaccavento et al. 2006; Brouwer et al. 2004). 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid– phthalic acid was identified in fresh, white and red Panax ginseng Abd El-Aty et al. (2008), as well as in crude extracts of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd (Rao et al. 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Trollius europaeus flowers obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The compounds giving fragrance of essential oils commonly used in perfumery 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, nonanal, 3-methyl-2-pent-2-enyl-cyclopent-2-enone and oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one, rare in the Plant Kingdom, were tentatively identified. In the analyzed essential oil, the saturated fatty acids hexadecanoic acid (7.54 %), tetradecanoic acid (4.24 %), dodecanoic acid (3.10 %) and unsaturated fatty acids 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (3.47 %), hydrocarbons, namely eicosane (20.03 %), hexadecane (8.63 %) and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (2.39 %), were also found.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 05/2012; 35(5). DOI:10.1007/s11738-012-1180-y · 1.58 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview (2 Sources)

17 Reads
Available from