Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease, but Increased Prostate Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 4.23). 05/2004; 134(4):919-22.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate quantitatively the associations between intake of alpha-linolenic acid [ALA, the (n-3) fatty acid in vegetable oils], mortality from heart disease, and the occurrence of prostate cancer in observational studies. We identified 5 prospective cohort studies that reported intake of ALA and mortality from heart disease. We also reviewed data from 3 clinical trials on ALA intake and heart disease. In addition, we identified 9 cohort and case-control studies that reported on the association between ALA intake or blood levels and incidence or prevalence of prostate cancer. We combined risk estimates across studies using a random-effects model. High ALA intake was associated with reduced risk of fatal heart disease in prospective cohort studies (combined relative risk 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.04). Three open-label trials also indicated that ALA may protect against heart disease. However, epidemiologic studies also showed an increased risk of prostate cancer in men with a high intake or blood level of ALA (combined relative risk 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.58). This meta-analysis shows that consumption of ALA might reduce heart disease mortality. However, the association between high intake of ALA and prostate cancer is of concern and warrants further study.

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    • "Regular flaxseed oil contains between 52% and 63% ALA (C18:3 n-3). Studies (Ramon et al., 2000; Brouwer et al., 2004) have shown a relationship between ALA and an increased risk of prostate cancer. This risk was found to be irrespective of source (e.g., meat, vegetable oil; De Stéfani et al., 2000). "
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    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 08/2013; 26(8). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2013.13027 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    • "This compound belongs to the group of omega-3 fatty acids, commonly occurring in flaxseed, canola oil, soybeans, and walnut oils (Simopoulos 2004; Gruenwald et al. 2004). Oils rich in a-linolenic acid are used to prevent and treat heart diseases, an elevated level of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood, and hypertension (Fiaccavento et al. 2006; Brouwer et al. 2004). 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid– phthalic acid was identified in fresh, white and red Panax ginseng Abd El-Aty et al. (2008), as well as in crude extracts of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd (Rao et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Trollius europaeus flowers obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The compounds giving fragrance of essential oils commonly used in perfumery 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, nonanal, 3-methyl-2-pent-2-enyl-cyclopent-2-enone and oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one, rare in the Plant Kingdom, were tentatively identified. In the analyzed essential oil, the saturated fatty acids hexadecanoic acid (7.54 %), tetradecanoic acid (4.24 %), dodecanoic acid (3.10 %) and unsaturated fatty acids 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (3.47 %), hydrocarbons, namely eicosane (20.03 %), hexadecane (8.63 %) and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (2.39 %), were also found.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 05/2012; 35(5). DOI:10.1007/s11738-012-1180-y · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    • "Ecological studies suggest benefits of increasing ALA intake in populations with low overall n-3 PUFA consumption (Zatonski et al., 2008). Results of prospective cohort studies of ALA and CVD have been mixed, with some individual studies observing inverse associations with CHD events but meta-analyses showing no significant overall relationship (Brouwer et al., 2004; Mozaffarian, 2005; Wang et al., 2006; Mente et al., 2009). "
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