[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism was recently associated with a urinary porphyrin pattern indicative of mercury toxicity in a large cohort of French children. The IRB of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses approved the present study. A total of 37 consecutive American patients (> or = 7 years-old) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-DSM IV), born from 1983-1998, that presented to the Genetic Centers of America for outpatient genetic evaluations were prospectively examined for urinary prophryin levels (LabCorp, Inc.) from June 2005-June 2006. Imaging and laboratory testing were conducted on each patient to rule-out other causal factors for their ASDs. As controls, age-, sex-, and race-matched neurotypical ASD siblings were examined. An apparent dose-response effect was observed between autism severity and increased urinary coproporphyrins. Patients with non-chelated autism (2.25-fold, 83% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean) and non-chelated ASDs (2-fold, 58% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean), but not patients with non-chelated pervasive developmental delay-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) or Asperger's disorder (1.4-fold, 46% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean), had significantly increased median coproporphyrin levels versus controls. A significant increase (1.7-fold) in median coproporphyrin levels was observed among non-chelated ASD patients versus chelated ASD patients. Porphyrins should be routinely clinically measured in ASDs, and potential ASD treatments should consider monitoring porphyrin levels. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate the potential role for mercury exposure in some ASDs.
Neurotoxicity Research 09/2006; 10(1):57-64. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs. The comprehensive search for and review of literature found over 2000 abstracts and resulted in 25 eligible manuscripts (22 published, 3 unpublished: 8 randomized controlled trials, 7 controlled nonrandomized, 6 noncontrolled prospective, and 2 qualitative studies, and 1 case report). When appropriate, methodological quality, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and effect size were assessed. Overall, although preliminary evidence suggests MM efficacy and safety, conclusive data for MM as a treatment of SUDs are lacking. Significant methodological limitations exist in most studies. Further, it is unclear which persons with SUDs might benefit most from MM. Future trials must be of sufficient sample size to answer a specific clinical question and should target both assessment of effect size and mechanisms of action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study provided a review of evidence-based yoga interventions' impact on smoking cessation. The researchers reviewed articles obtained from MEDLINE (PubMed), EBSCOHOST, PROQUEST, MEDINDIA, CINAHL, Alt HealthWatch, and AMED databases. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (a) study published between 2004 and 2013, (b) study published in English language, (c) study used yoga-based interventions, (d) study involved smokers with varying level of smoking, (e) study used any quantitative design, and (f) study had physiological and/or psychological outcomes. A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Designs were 2 pre-post tests and 8 randomized controlled trials. Majority of the interventions were able to enhance quitting smoking rates in the participants under study. Yoga-based interventions hold promise for smoking cessation. Some of the limitations include short follow-up measurements and short duration of intervention.
Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine. 02/2014;
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