The impact of Hatha yoga on smoking behavior.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop and test an innovative yoga-based behavioral intervention for smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory and compare it with an existing self-help based program. In both the groups, the antecedents of quitting based on social cognitive theory, namely, self-efficacy for quitting and self-control for quitting were tracked for six months along with self-reported daily consumption of cigarettes, self-efficacy for yoga, and past week performance of yoga behaviors. A valid and reliable 23-item instrument was utilized. The study employed an experimental design. Twenty one participants recruited in this study after informed consent and randomly assigned to the two groups. Seven (33.3%) participants completed the study protocol and one participant who was in the yoga group was successful in quitting smoking. Statistically significant improvements occurred in the social cognitive-theory based yoga group over the self-help group for self-control for quitting (p<0.001) and performance of yoga behaviors (p<0.05). This pilot study suggested that a social cognitive theory based yoga intervention was more efficacious in influencing the antecedents of smoking cessation than a self-help approach. This study lends support for developing and testing future interventions regarding the use of yoga as a behavioral method for smoking cessation.
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ABSTRACT: Autism was recently associated with a urinary porphyrin pattern indicative of mercury toxicity in a large cohort of French children. The IRB of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses approved the present study. A total of 37 consecutive American patients (> or = 7 years-old) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-DSM IV), born from 1983-1998, that presented to the Genetic Centers of America for outpatient genetic evaluations were prospectively examined for urinary prophryin levels (LabCorp, Inc.) from June 2005-June 2006. Imaging and laboratory testing were conducted on each patient to rule-out other causal factors for their ASDs. As controls, age-, sex-, and race-matched neurotypical ASD siblings were examined. An apparent dose-response effect was observed between autism severity and increased urinary coproporphyrins. Patients with non-chelated autism (2.25-fold, 83% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean) and non-chelated ASDs (2-fold, 58% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean), but not patients with non-chelated pervasive developmental delay-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) or Asperger's disorder (1.4-fold, 46% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean), had significantly increased median coproporphyrin levels versus controls. A significant increase (1.7-fold) in median coproporphyrin levels was observed among non-chelated ASD patients versus chelated ASD patients. Porphyrins should be routinely clinically measured in ASDs, and potential ASD treatments should consider monitoring porphyrin levels. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate the potential role for mercury exposure in some ASDs.Neurotoxicity Research 09/2006; 10(1):57-64. DOI:10.1007/BF03033334 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs. The comprehensive search for and review of literature found over 2000 abstracts and resulted in 25 eligible manuscripts (22 published, 3 unpublished: 8 randomized controlled trials, 7 controlled nonrandomized, 6 noncontrolled prospective, and 2 qualitative studies, and 1 case report). When appropriate, methodological quality, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and effect size were assessed. Overall, although preliminary evidence suggests MM efficacy and safety, conclusive data for MM as a treatment of SUDs are lacking. Significant methodological limitations exist in most studies. Further, it is unclear which persons with SUDs might benefit most from MM. Future trials must be of sufficient sample size to answer a specific clinical question and should target both assessment of effect size and mechanisms of action.Substance Abuse 10/2009; 30(4):266-94. DOI:10.1080/08897070903250019 · 1.62 Impact Factor