Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the esophagus: literature-review and proposal of a clinicopathologic classification.

Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Germany.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 9.21). 04/2004; 99(3):543-51. DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04082.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prevalence of heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) in the cervical esophagus is frequently underestimated. Tiny microscopic foci have to be distinguished from a macroscopically visible patch, also called "inlet patch." Symptoms as well as morphologic changes associated with HGM are regarded as a result of the damaging effect of acid, produced by parietal cells in the mostly fundic type of HGM. We herein review the literature and propose a new clinicopathologic classification of esophageal HGM: Most of the carriers of esophageal HGM are asymptomatic (HGM I). Some individuals with HGM in the esophagus complain of dysphagia, odynophagia, or "extraesophageal manifestations" (hoarseness and coughing), without further morphologic findings (HGM II). Still fewer patients are symptomatic due to morphologic changes, i.e., esophageal strictures, webs, or esophagotracheal fistula (HGM III). Malignant transformation via dysplasia (intraepithelial neoplasia, HGM IV) to cervical esophageal adenocarcinoma (HGM V) is exceedingly rare (only 24 reported cases). In contrast to Barrett's esophagus, HGM should not be regarded as a precancerous lesion. Symptoms are more likely to occur in patients with inlet patch, whereas malignant transformation and adenocarcinogenesis can also occur in microscopic HGM foci. Asymptomatic HGM requires neither specific therapy nor endoscopic surveillance. Only in symptomatic cases treatment, i.e., dilatation for (benign) strictures or acid suppression for reflux symptoms, can be recommended. Patients with low-grade dysplasia in HGM might be candidates for surveillance strategies, whereas in cases of high-grade dysplasia and invasive adenocarcinoma oncological treatment strategies must be employed.

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    ABSTRACT: Columnar epithelium in the distal part of the esophagus is generally related to Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Therefore, its diagnosis and surveillance are important. Columnar epithelium in the esophagus other than Barrett's esophagus can be gastric heterotopia, which generally takes place in the upper part of the esophagus and is named inlet patch. The presence of gastric metaplasia in the distal part of the esophagus is rare and can cause misdiagnosis. Therefore, its differentiation from Barrett's esophagus is important. Here we present a case of gastric heterotopia located in the distal part of the esophagus that caused reflux-like symptoms and needed differentiation from Barrett's esophagus.
    Case Reports in Gastroenterology 01/2014; 8(3):282-285.
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    Dataset: HGMPE
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence, demographic, clinical and histopathologic features of heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) in Chinese patients. Patients referred to three endoscopy units were enrolled in this study. The macroscopic characteristics of HGM were documented. Biopsies were obtained and observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Helicobacter pylori colonization was examined by Whartin-Starry staining. HGM was observed in 420 Chinese patients, yielding a prevalence of 0.4%. The majority of patients had a single patch (300/420; 71.4%), while the remainder had two (84/420; 20%) or multiple patches (36/420; 8.6%). The size of the patches and the distance from the patch to the frontal incisor teeth varied significantly. The large majority of HGM patches were flat (393/420; 93.6%), whereas the remaining patches were slightly elevated. The primary histological characteristic was fundic-type (216/420; 51.4%) within the HGM patch, and antral- (43/420; 10.2%) and transitional-type (65/420; 15.5%) mucosa were also observed. The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was 3.1% (13/420) and the prevalence of dysplasia was 1.4% (6/420), indicating the necessity for endoscopic follow-up in patients with HGM. Esophageal and extraesophageal complaints were also observed in patients with HGM. Dysphagia and epigastric discomfort (odds ratios: 6.836 and 115.826, respectively; Ps < 0.05) were independent risk factors for HGM. Clinical complaints should be considered to improve the detection rate of HMG. The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia also indicates a need for endoscopic follow-up.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 12/2014; 20(46):17588-94.


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