[Levels of apoproteins B, A1 and CIII as markers for cardiovascular risk in lean and obese adolescents].
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease is a significant health problem affecting the adult population. Because atherosclerosis may begin in childhood, the aim of the present study was to identify biochemical markers for cardiovascular risk at an early stage of life. We studied 79 adolescents (48 girls and 31 boys) whose ages ranged from 13 to 17 years. A medical history (including pubertal stage by Tanner) was obtained from each subject. Anthropometric assessment was established by height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, centrality index and obesity index. After a 12-h fast, basal blood glucose levels, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and HDL-C were determined by enzymatic methods, mean basal insulin levels by radio immunoassays and apo A1, B, CIII by turbidimetric immunoassays. According to the BMI and taking 25 Kg/m2 as the cutoff value, 35% of the girls and 16% of the boys were obese. Eighty-five percent of the girls and 58% of the boys were hyperinsulinemic (basal insulin > 12 uU/ml). Circumferences, skinfolds, centrality and obesity index were higher (p < 0.05) in boys than in girls. In both, boys and girls, basal insulin levels were higher than the cutoff insulin value for our lab (>12 microU/ml), with the girls having higher insulin levels than the boys. Apo A1 was negatively associated with the obesity index and positively with HDL-C. Apo B was related to total cholesterol and LDL-C. Apo CIII was associated with basal insulin levels, triglycerides and VLDL-C. Our results suggest that apo CIII might be a good marker for higher insulin levels, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents.