To inform the debate on the use of elective caesarean section (CS) delivery in HIV-infected women, we investigated the occurrence of clinical events in the immediate post-partum period in women delivering in 13 European centres.
Two separate matched case-control studies (vaginal and elective CS deliveries) among infected women (cases) and uninfected controls delivering between 1992 and 2002.
The prevalence of minor and major post-partum complications was assessed overall for infected and uninfected women; within mode of delivery group (vaginal/CS) the complication rates of infected cases were compared with uninfected controls in a matched analysis.
Overall complication rates were 29.2% (119 of 408) for HIV-infected women, 19.4% (79 of 408) for uninfected women, 42.7% (135 of 316) for CS deliveries and 12.6% (63 of 500) for vaginal deliveries. There were no major complications in women delivering vaginally; but, compared with controls, HIV-infected cases were at increased risk of puerperal fever [odds ratio (OR), 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55-13.07), especially after medio-lateral episiotomy. In the CS group, there were six major complications (five among cases, one control) (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 0.58-45) and cases had an increased risk of minor complications (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.22-2.41) compared with controls, mainly anaemia not requiring blood transfusion.
HIV-infected pregnant women are at increased risk of post-partum complications regardless of mode of delivery, but modification of clinical practice, particularly use of prophylactic antibiotics, would reduce this risk. Infected women should be informed about risks of vertical transmission and post-partum complications, and be involved in mode of delivery decisions.
"Deaths in HIV-infected women are generally attributed to advancing immunodeficiency and worsening co-morbidities such as anemia, malnutrition, malaria or tuberculosis. It appears, however, that HIV also increases the risk of death due to obstetrical complications, including hemorrhage, miscarriage or sepsis , , . Pregnancy is a vulnerable immunologic state where women are more prone to acquiring HIV infection . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection is a major contributor to maternal mortality in resource-limited settings. The Drug Resource Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition Programme has been promoting HAART use during pregnancy and postpartum for Prevention-of-mother-to-child-HIV transmission (PMTCT) irrespective of maternal CD4 cell counts since 2002.
Records for all HIV+ pregnancies followed in Mozambique and Malawi from 6/2002 to 6/2010 were reviewed. The cohort was comprised by pregnancies where women were referred for PMTCT and started HAART during prenatal care (n = 8172, group 1) and pregnancies where women were referred on established HAART (n = 1978, group 2).
10,150 pregnancies were followed. Median (IQR) baseline values were age 26 years (IQR:23-30), CD4 count 392 cells/mm(3) (IQR:258-563), Viral Load log10 3.9 (IQR:3.2-4.4), BMI 23.4 (IQR:21.5-25.7), Hemoglobin 10.0 (IQR: 9.0-11.0). 101 maternal deaths (0.99%) occurred during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum: 87 (1.1%) in group 1 and 14 (0.7%) in group 2. Mortality was 1.3% in women with <than 350 CD4 cells/mm(3) and 0.7% in women with greater than 350 CD4s cells/mm(3) [OR = 1.9 (CL 1.3-2.9) p = 0.001]. Mortality was higher in patients with shorter antenatal HAART: 22/991 (2.2%) if less than 30 days and 79/9159 (0.9%) if 31 days or greater [OR = 2.6 (CL 1.6-4.2) p<0.001]. By multivariate analysis, shorter antenatal HAART (p<0.001), baseline values for CD4 cell count (p = 0.012), hemoglobin (p = 0.02), and BMI (p<0.001) were associated with mortality. Four years later, survival was 92% for women with shorter antenatal HAART and 98% for women on established therapy prior to pregnancy, p = 0.001.
Antiretrovirals for PMTCT purposes have significant impact on maternal mortality as do CD4 counts and nutritional status. In resource-limited settings, PMTCT programs should provide universal HAART to all HIV+ pregnant women given its impact in prevention of maternal death.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71653. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071653 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"HIV can aggravate other prevalent debilitating conditions in pregnancy like anaemia, thereby increasing severity of maternal morbidity  . Similar findings have been observed in developed countries with HIV-infected pregnant women having a higher risk of hospitalisation, and longer stay during hospitalisation than HIV-uninfected women despite the use of HAART  . Our study quantified the likely magnitude of the deleterious effect of HIV on maternal morbidity in Uganda, highlighting the need for interventions to address maternal morbidity as PMTCT programs scale up, even after HAART is widely available  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To compare maternal morbidity in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women. Methods. Major maternal morbidity (severe febrile illness, illnesses requiring hospital admissions, surgical revisions, or illnesses resulting in death) was measured prospectively in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women followed from 36 weeks of pregnancy to 6 weeks after delivery. Odds ratios of major morbidity and associated factors were examined using logistic regression.
Results. Major morbidity was observed in 46/129 (36%) and 104/390 (27%) of the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, respectively, who remained in followup. In the multivariable analysis, major morbidity was independently associated with HIV infection, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7 (1.1 to 2.7), nulliparity (AOR 2.0 (1.3 to 3.0)), and lack of, or minimal, formal education (AOR 2.1 (1.1 to 3.8)). Conclusions. HIV was associated with a 70% increase in the odds of major maternal morbidity in these Ugandan mothers.
Journal of pregnancy 01/2012; 2012:508657. DOI:10.1155/2012/508657
"Elective Cesarean section should therefore represent an essential component of every prophylactic HIV1-transmission regimen (AI, II). On the other hand some studies which compared healthy pregnant women with HIV1-infected pregnant women showed a higher rate of complications as cause of cesarean section (e.g. higher rates of fever, hematoma and wound infection [117,118,139]) in HIV1-positve women. In contrast other studies failed to prove these disadvantages of cesarean section [97-100]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Germany during the last years about 200-250 HIV1-infected pregnant women delivered a baby each year, a number that is currently increasing. To determine the HIV-status early in pregnancy voluntary HIV-testing of all pregnant women is recommended in Germany and Austria as part of prenatal care. In those cases, where HIV1-infection was known during pregnancy, since 1995 the rate of vertical transmission of HIV1 was reduced to 1-2%. This low transmission rate has been achieved by the combination of anti-retroviral therapy of pregnant women, caesarean section scheduled before onset of labour, anti-retroviral post exposition prophylaxis in the newborn and refraining from breast-feeding by the HIV1-infected mother. To keep pace with new results in research, approval of new anti-retroviral drugs and changes in the general treatment recommendations for HIV1-infected adults, in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 an interdisciplinary consensus meeting was held. Gynaecologists, infectious disease specialists, paediatricians, pharmacologists, virologists and members of the German AIDS Hilfe (NGO) were participating in this conference to update the prevention strategies. A fifth update became necessary in 2008. The updating process was started in January 2008 and was terminated in September 2008. The guidelines provide new recommendations on the indication and the starting point for HIV-therapy in pregnancies without complications, drugs and drug combinations to be used preferably in these pregnancies and updated information on adverse effects of anti-retroviral drugs. Also the procedures for different scenarios and risk constellations in pregnancy have been specified again. With these current guidelines in Germany and Austria the low rate of vertical HIV1-transmission should be further maintained.
European journal of medical research 11/2009; 14(11):461-79. DOI:10.1186/2047-783X-14-11-461 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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