Gene silencing by the thyroid hormone receptor.
ABSTRACT The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are able to bind DNA and to repress transcription in the absence of thyroid hormone. This repression function is an important feature of TRs as aberrant silencing can lead to severe diseases and developmental abnormalities. TR utilizes different mechanisms to achieve repression of target genes including the recruitment of cofactors called corepressors and interference with the basal transcriptional machinery. Recent studies have revealed an important role of chromatin in TR silencing involving different histone modifications and the responsible enzymes. Furthermore, the transcriptional properties of TR depend on the type of the TR DNA-binding elements. This review will focus on the molecular basis of gene silencing by TR and diseases caused by aberrant functioning.
Article: The highly conserved region of the co-repressor Sin3A functionally interacts with the co-repressor Alien.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Sin3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved co-repressors (CoR) that function as mediators of gene repression for a variety of transcriptional silencers. The paired amphipathic helices of Sin3A were identified and studied as protein-protein interacting domains. Previously we have shown the interaction of Sin3A with the CoR Alien in vivo and in vitro. Here, we show that Alien and Sin3A reside together in vivo with the vitamin D3 receptor on the human 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) promoter containing vitamin D3 response elements by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We delineated and characterized the interaction domains of Sin3A with Alien. Interestingly, the highly conserved region (HCR) of Sin3A, which has not yet been functionally characterized, interacts with Alien. The HCR encompasses only 134 amino acids, shares more than 80% identity with Sin3B and binds to the N-terminus of Alien, which harbours a transferable silencing function. Functionally, co-expression of Sin3A enhances Alien-mediated gene repression and overexpression of the HCR alone leads to the inhibition of Alien-mediated repression and to the induction of the endogenous CYP24 promoter. Our results therefore indicate a novel functional role of the Sin3 HCR and give novel insights into Alien-mediated gene repression.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2004; 32(10):2995-3004. · 8.03 Impact Factor