Elevated SNAP-25 is associated with fatty acid-induced impairment of mouse islet function.
ABSTRACT The role of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in insulin secretion following chronic exposure to non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) levels were predominantly elevated in the soluble fraction of mouse islets exposed to palmitate. This coincided with an impairment of insulin secretion to glucose and non-glucose secretagogues, consistent with a defect at a distal regulatory step in exocytosis. Removal of palmitate from the media restored both SNAP-25 protein levels and insulin secretion to control levels. We conclude that increased expression of SNAP-25 is associated with NEFA-induced impairment of insulin secretion in mouse islets.
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ABSTRACT: A systematic study has been conducted of all available reports in PubMed and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) to examine the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative genetic loci (QTL) of diabetes with the main focus on genes and polymorphisms. The major question is, What can the QTL tell us? Specifically, we want to know whether those genome regions differ from other regions in terms of genes relevant to diabetes. Which genes are within those QTL regions, and, among them, which genes have already been linked to diabetes? whether more polymorphisms have been associated with diabetes in the QTL regions than in the non-QTL regions.Our search revealed a total of 9038 genes from 26 type 1 diabetes QTL, which cover 667,096,006 bp of the mouse genomic sequence. On one hand, a large number of candidate genes are in each of these QTL; on the other hand, we found that some obvious candidate genes of QTL have not yet been investigated. Thus, the comprehensive search of candidate genes for known QTL may provide unexpected benefit for identifying QTL genes for diabetes.Current Genomics 09/2008; 9(5):324-37. · 2.41 Impact Factor
Article: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase overexpression in pancreatic beta-cells results in reduced insulin secretion: a new mechanism for fat-induced impairment of beta-cell function.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a gluconeogenic enzyme that is upregulated in islets or pancreatic beta-cell lines exposed to high fat. However, whether specific beta-cell upregulation of FBPase can impair insulin secretory function is not known. The objective of this study therefore is to determine whether a specific increase in islet beta-cell FBPase can result in reduced glucose-mediated insulin secretion. To test this hypothesis, we have generated three transgenic mouse lines overexpressing the human FBPase (huFBPase) gene specifically in pancreatic islet beta-cells. In addition, to investigate the biochemical mechanism by which elevated FBPase affects insulin secretion, we made two pancreatic beta-cell lines (MIN6) stably overexpressing huFBPase. FBPase transgenic mice showed reduced insulin secretion in response to an intravenous glucose bolus. Compared with the untransfected parental MIN6, FBPase-overexpressing cells showed a decreased cell proliferation rate and significantly depressed glucose-induced insulin secretion. These defects were associated with a decrease in the rate of glucose utilization, resulting in reduced cellular ATP levels. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of FBPase in pancreatic islet beta-cells, as occurs in states of lipid oversupply and type 2 diabetes, contributes to insulin secretory dysfunction.Diabetes 08/2008; 57(7):1887-95. · 8.29 Impact Factor