Diagnostic values of tests for acromioclavicular joint pain.
ABSTRACT This prospective study was performed to determine which clinical and imaging tests were most helpful for diagnosing acromioclavicular joint pain.
Of 1037 patients with shoulder pain, 113 who mapped pain within an area bounded by the midpart of the clavicle and the deltoid insertion were eligible for inclusion in the study. Forty-two subjects agreed to participate, and four of them were lost to follow-up. Twenty clinical tests, radiography, bone-scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and an acromioclavicular joint injection test were performed on all patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they had a > or =50% decrease in pain following the acromioclavicular joint injection. Statistical analysis, including multivariate regression analysis, was performed in order to evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of the various tests.
Acromioclavicular joint pain was confirmed in twenty-eight of the thirty-eight patients. The most sensitive tests were examination for acromioclavicular tenderness (96% sensitivity), the Paxinos test (79%), magnetic resonance imaging (85%), and bone-scanning (82%), but these studies had low specificity. In the stepwise regression model, with the response to the injection used as the dependent variable, bone-scanning and the Paxinos test were the only independent variables retained. Patients with a positive Paxinos test as well as a positive bone scan had high post-test odds (55:1) and a 99% post-test probability of having pain due to pathological changes in the acromioclavicular joint. The likelihood ratio for patients with one negative test and one positive test was indeterminate (0.4:1). Patients with both a negative Paxinos test and a negative bone scan had a likelihood ratio of 0.03:1 for having acromioclavicular joint pain, which basically rules out the disorder.
The highly sensitive tests had low specificity, and the highly specific tests had low sensitivity. However, the combination of a positive Paxinos test and a positive bone scan predicted damage to the acromioclavicular joint as the cause of shoulder pain with a high degree of confidence.
- SourceAvailable from: ocean.kisti.re.kr[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: Although surgical arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff has become much more common as surgeons have developed proficient techniques, it is still technically difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results and the usefulness of mini-open repair in large and massive size tears. Materials & Methods: From January 2000 to December 2004, sixteen patients were treated with mini-open repair. There were 10 male and 6 female patients with the average age of 62.5 years. The size of tear was massive in 4 cases and large in 12 cases. All tears were repaired with metal anchor sutures. The mean duration of follow-up period was 23 months. Postoperative results were evaluated based on American Shoulder and Elbow Society scoring system. Results: Five patients showed excellent results, five good, and two fair in large tears while one patient showed excellent result, one good, and two fair in massive tears. Poor outcome was not seen during the follow-up period. There was no significant relationship between the patient's age and the size of tear, and postoperative results. However, the relationship between the duration of symptomatic period in preoperation and postoperative results showed significant correlation. Conclusion: Mini-open repair combined with the preservation of deltoid and early rehabilitation is clinically useful in large and massive size rotator cuff tear patients treatment.The Journal of the Korean Shoulder and Elbow Society. 12/2006; 9(2).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Injection into the acromioclavicular (AC) joint is often inaccurate (approximately 50%) even in experienced hands. In light of new anatomic observations, we evaluate accuracy of an innovative ultrasound-guided method and follow the clinical course of successful therapeutic injections. Relevant anatomy was investigated in 200 three-dimensional computed tomography scans, 100 magnetic resonance images, and 14 cadavers. Baseline measurements of joint depth and width were performed ultrasonically in 100 normal volunteers; 50 symptomatic patients were injected. Uniquely in a clinical ultrasound study, injection success was documented by arthrography. Outcomes after concomitant steroid instillation were observed for 6 months by visual analog scale (VAS) scores and pain provocation test results. Anatomic studies showed that the widest area for joint penetration was anterior superior. Injection success rate was 96%, overwhelmingly on the first needle pass. Shallow joint depth allowed access with a standard 3-cm needle. Joint width diminished with age but did not reduce injection success. Cadaveric joints admitted 1.2 ± 0.5 mL, but fluid ingress was initially blocked by soft tissues in one third of both cadaveric and clinical cases. Diligent follow-up after steroid injection showed sustained pain relief in the majority with isolated AC disease but significantly less in those with concomitant shoulder disorders. This high level of clinical injection success, irrefutably substantiated with arthrography, has not been previously demonstrated. The anterior superior aspect of the joint is the preferred place for entry. Initial intra-articular blockage to fluid inflow is common but can be surmounted. Encouraging 6-month results of steroid instillation in isolated AC disease do not apply to patients with coexisting shoulder pathologic processes.Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 04/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The use of orthopedic special tests (OSTs) to diagnose shoulder pathology via the clinical examination is standard in clinical practice. There is a great deal of research on special tests but much of the research is of a lower quality implying that the metrics from that research, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios, is likely to vary greatly in the hands of different clinicians and in varying practice environments. A way to improve the clinical diagnostic process is to cluster OSTs and to use these clusters to either rule in or out different pathologies. The aim of the article is to review the best OST clusters, examine the methodology by which they were derived, and illustrate, with a case study, the use of these OST clusters to arrive at a pathology-based diagnosis.Physical Therapy in Sport 08/2014; · 1.37 Impact Factor