Oxysterols Regulate Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Pro-Bone and Anti-Fat

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (Impact Factor: 6.83). 06/2004; 19(5):830-40. DOI: 10.1359/JBMR.040115
Source: PubMed


Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells can undergo lineage-specific differentiation in adult organisms. However, understanding of the factors and mechanisms that drive this differentiation is limited. We show the novel ability of specific oxysterols to regulate lineage-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic cells while inhibiting their adipogenic differentiation. Such effects may have important implications for intervention with osteoporosis.
Oxysterols are products of cholesterol oxidation and are formed in vivo by a variety of cells including osteoblasts. Novel pro-osteogenic and anti-adipogenic effects of specific oxysterols on pluripotent mesenchymal cells are demonstrated in this report. Aging and osteoporosis are associated with a decrease in the number and activity of osteoblastic cells and a parallel increase in the number of adipocytic cells.
The M2-10B4 pluripotent marrow stromal cell line, as well as several other mesenchymal cell lines and primary marrow stromal cells, was used to assess the effects of oxysterols. All results were analyzed for statistical significance using ANOVA.
Pro-osteogenic and anti-adipogenic effects of specific oxysterols were assessed by the increase in early and late markers of osteogenic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin mRNA expression and mineralization, and the decrease in markers of adipogenic differentiation including lipoprotein lipase and adipocyte P2 mRNA expression and adipocyte formation. Complete osteogenic differentiation of M2 cells into cells expressing early and late markers of differentiation was achieved only when using combinations of specific oxysterols, whereas inhibition of adipogenesis could be achieved with individual oxysterols. Oxysterol effects were in part mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and enzymes in the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway, i.e., cyclo-oxygenase and phospholipase A(2). Furthermore, we show that these specific oxysterols act in synergy with bone morphogenetic protein 2 in inducing osteogenic differentiation. These findings suggest that oxysterols may play an important role in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and may have significant, previously unrecognized, importance in stem cell biology and potential therapeutic interventions.

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    • "Oxysterols have potent effects on cell death processes, including apoptosis induction [15] [16]; reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reportedly involved in this effect [15]. In fact, oxysterols have been shown to exhibit cytotoxicity in a number of cell lines, including smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells [17]. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells characterized by self-renewal and cellular differentiation abilities [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oxysterols comprise a very heterogeneous group derived from cholesterol through enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation. Among them, 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) is one of the most important. It has potent effects in cell death processes, including cytoxicity and apoptosis induction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells characterized by self-renewal and cellular differentiation capabilities. Very little is known about the effects of oxysterols in MSCs. Here, we describe the short-term cytotoxic effect of 7-ketocholesterol on MSCs derived from human adipose tissue. MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue obtained from two young, healthy women. After 24 h incubation with 7-KC, mitochondrial hyperpolarization was observed, followed by a slight increase in the level of apoptosis and changes in actin organization. Finally, the IC50 of 7-KC was higher in these cells than has been observed or described in other normal or cancer cell lines.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2014; 446(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.01.132 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "Caveolin-1 regulation of differentiation probably occurs within caveolae through interactions with receptors and downstream signaling molecules for differentiation stimuli. In accordance with this idea, MSC osteogenic differentiation can be promoted by the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor simvastatin [77-79], and by oxysterols, which suppress caveolin-1 expression and cause caveolin-1 translocation out of caveolae [80,81]. Also, bone marrow MSCs isolated from mouse models of osteoporosis or high bone mineral density have decreased and increased responsiveness to BMP2, respectively, due to dysregulated localization of the BMP receptor 1a with caveolin-1 isoforms, and dysregulated caveolae trafficking in response to BMP2 [82,83]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells are an important resource for tissue repair and regeneration. While a great deal of attention has focused on derivation and molecular regulation of stem cells, relatively little research has focused on how the subcellular structure and composition of the cell membrane influences stem cell activities such as proliferation, differentiation and homing. Caveolae are specialized membrane lipid rafts coated with caveolin scaffolding proteins, which can regulate cholesterol transport and the activity of cell signaling receptors and their downstream effectors. Caveolin-1 is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including growth, control of mitochondrial antioxidant levels, migration and senescence. These activities are of relevance to stem cell biology, and in this review evidence for caveolin-1 involvement in stem cell biology is summarized. Altered stem and progenitor cell populations in caveolin-1 null mice suggest that caveolin-1 can regulate stem cell proliferation, and in vitro studies with isolated stem cells suggest that caveolin-1 regulates stem cell differentiation. The available evidence leads us to hypothesize that caveolin-1 expression may stabilize the differentiated and undifferentiated stem cell phenotype, and transient downregulation of caveolin-1 expression may be required for transition between the two. Such regulation would probably be critical in regenerative applications of adult stem cells and during tissue regeneration. We also review here the temporal changes in caveolin-1 expression reported during tissue repair. Delayed muscle regeneration in transgenic mice overexpressing caveolin-1 as well as compromised cardiac, brain and liver tissue repair and delayed wound healing in caveolin-1 null mice suggest that caveolin-1 plays an important role in tissue repair, but that this role may be negative or positive depending on the tissue type and the nature of the repair process. Finally, we also discuss how caveolin-1 quiescence-inducing activities and effects on mitochondrial antioxidant levels may influence stem cell aging.
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy 07/2013; 4(4):90. DOI:10.1186/scrt276 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    • "In contrast, LMNA-transduced cells show a significant increase in the expression of those adipogenic markers. Our results differ from those found previously by Kha et al. (2004). From their results, we would have expected to find an improved osteogenic potential in PG-MSCs because adipogenesis was reduced. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the effect of the over-expression of LMNA, or its mutant form progerin (PG), on the mesoderm differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human umbilical cord (UC) stroma using a recently described differentiation model employing spheroid formation. Accumulation of lamin A (LMNA) was previously associated with the osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocyte phenotype. Mutations of this protein are linked to laminopathies and specifically to Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), an accelerated aging disease. Some authors have proposed that a deregulation of LMNA affects the differentiation potential of stem cells. The chondrogenic potential is defective in PG-MSCs, although both PG and LMNA transduced MSCs, have an increase in hypertrophy markers during chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, both PG and LMNA-MSCs showed a decrease in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSODM), an increase of mitochondrial MnSODM-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alterations in their migration capacity. Finally, defects in chondrogenesis are partially reversed by periodic incubation with ROS-scavenger agent that mimics MnSODM effect. Our results indicate that over-expression of LMNA or PG by lentiviral gene delivery leads to defects in chondrogenic differentiation potential partially due to an imbalance in oxidative stress.
    Stem Cell Research 07/2013; 11(3):1137-1148. DOI:10.1016/j.scr.2013.07.004 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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