Childhood vaccination and type 1 diabetes.
ABSTRACT A link between childhood vaccinations and the development of type 1 diabetes has been proposed.
We evaluated a cohort comprising all children born in Denmark from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2000, for whom detailed information on vaccinations and type 1 diabetes was available. Using Poisson regression models, we estimated rate ratios according to vaccination status, including the trend associated with the number of doses, among all children and in a subgroup of children who had siblings with type 1 diabetes. Given recent claims of clustering of cases of diabetes two to four years after vaccination, we also estimated rate ratios during the period after vaccination.
Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed in 681 children during 4,720,517 person-years of follow-up. The rate ratio for type 1 diabetes among children who received at least one dose of vaccine, as compared with unvaccinated children, was 0.91 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12) for Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; 1.02 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.37) for diphtheria, tetanus, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine; 0.96 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.30) for diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine; 1.06 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.80 to 1.40) for whole-cell pertussis vaccine; 1.14 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.45) for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; and 1.08 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.57) for oral poliovirus vaccine. The development of type 1 diabetes in genetically predisposed children (defined as those who had siblings with type 1 diabetes) was not significantly associated with vaccination. Furthermore, there was no evidence of any clustering of cases two to four years after vaccination with any vaccine.
These results do not support a causal relation between childhood vaccination and type 1 diabetes.
- SourceAvailable from: Mohammed Al-Biltagi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a strong relationship between diabetes (DM) and infection. Infections can elicit diabetes or make glycaemic control difficult. On the other hand; experimental models viruses appear capable of both accelerating as well as decelerating the immunological processes leading to type 1 diabetes (T1 DM). Many infections are more common in diabetic patients with increased severity and complications. In this chapter we will discuss some of the infections that can trigger development of DM as well as the commonly encountered infections that a diabetic patient may have.07/2013: pages 1-25; , ISBN: 978-1-922227-21-8
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ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infectious agent; its 14 oncogenic types are causally associated with 5-10% of all cancers. The major structural HPV protein self-assembles into immunogenic virus-like particles. Two licensed HPV vaccines-the bivalent vaccine comprising HPV types 16 and 18, and the quadrivalent vaccine comprising HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18-have proven to be safe and efficacious against 6-month-persistent cervical infections of HPV16 and HPV18 and associated precancerous lesions, and both have efficacies of 90-100%. Among baseline HPV-negative adolescent females, vaccine efficacies against the immediate precursor of cervical cancer (intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) irrespective of HPV type are 93.2% and 43.0% for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, respectively. The quadrivalent vaccine is efficacious (>75% vaccine efficacy) against any of the more-severe precursors of vulval, vaginal and anal cancers. A strong increase in vaccine efficacy with increasing severity of the precancerous lesion is explained by accumulation of the most-oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18 in these lesions. Therefore, prophylactic HPV vaccination will exceed the best results from screening for cancer. With the extremely efficacious prophylactic HPV vaccines, the focus of organized intervention (vaccination and screening) programmes should, however, shift from reducing the HPV disease burden to controlling the prevalence of oncogenic HPV (and nononcogenic HPV) types. Eradication of the major oncogenic HPV types should be pursued.Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 06/2013; · 15.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Comprehensive surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is required to detect potential serious adverse events that may not be identified in prelicensure vaccine trials. Surveillance systems have traditionally been passive, relying upon spontaneous reporting, but increasingly active surveillance and supplemental strategies are being incorporated into vaccine safety programs. These include active screening for targeted conditions of interest (e.g., hospitalization), monitoring of new data sources and real-time methodologies to detect changes in vaccine safety data in these sources. The role of improved causality assessment in AEFI surveillance is discussed, with its important role in determining whether a temporal association may have occurred by chance alone. Strong local vaccine safety networks are required to support national immunization programs, with recent progress in developing a framework for low- and middle-income countries. Global collaboration is increasingly required to address challenges in active AEFI surveillance, particularly for rare serious adverse events.Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor