Seeing 'cool' and 'hot'--infrared thermography as a tool for non-invasive, high-throughput screening of Arabidopsis guard cell signalling mutants.

Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.79). 06/2004; 55(400):1187-93. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erh135
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of Arabidopsis mutants defective in abscisic acid (ABA) perception has been instrumental in the understanding of stomatal function, in particular, ABA signalling in guard cells. The considerable attention devoted to ABA signalling in guard cells is due in part to (1) the fundamental role of ABA in drought stress and (2) the use of a screening protocol based on the sensitivity of seed germination to ABA. Such a screen has facilitated the isolation of ABA signalling mutants with genetic lesions that exert pleiotropic effects at the whole plant level. As such, there is a requirement for new approaches to complement the seed germination screen. The recent advances made in the use of infrared thermography as a non-invasive, high-throughput tool are reviewed here and the versatility of this technique for screening Arabidopsis defective in stomatal regulation is highlighted.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytosolic calcium increases were analyzed in guard cells of the Arabidopsis farnesyltransferase deletion mutant era1-2 (enhanced response to abscisic acid). At low abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations (0.1 microM), increases of guard cell cytosolic calcium and stomatal closure were activated to a greater extent in the era1-2 mutant compared with the wild type. Patch clamping of era1-2 guard cells showed enhanced ABA sensitivity of plasma membrane calcium channel currents. These data indicate that the ERA1 farnesyltransferase targets a negative regulator of ABA signaling that acts between the points of ABA perception and the activation of plasma membrane calcium influx channels. Experimental increases of cytosolic calcium showed that the activation of S-type anion currents downstream of cytosolic calcium and extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure were unaffected in era1-2, further supporting the positioning of era1-2 upstream of cytosolic calcium in the guard cell ABA signaling cascade. Moreover, the suppression of ABA-induced calcium increases in guard cells by the dominant protein phosphatase 2C mutant abi2-1 was rescued partially in era1-2 abi2-1 double mutant guard cells, further reinforcing the notion that ERA1 functions upstream of cytosolic calcium and indicating the genetic interaction of these two mutations upstream of ABA-induced calcium increases.
    The Plant Cell 08/2002; 14(7):1649-62. · 9.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews and discusses strategies for the use of thermal imaging for studies of stomatal conductance in the field and compares techniques for image collection and analysis. Measurements were taken under a range of environmental conditions and on sunlit and shaded canopies to illustrate the variability of temperatures and derived stress indices. A simple procedure is presented for correcting for calibration drift within the images from the low-cost thermal imager used (SnapShot 225, Infrared Solutions, Inc.). The use of wet and dry reference surfaces as thresholds to eliminate the inclusion of non-leaf material in the analysis of canopy temperature is discussed. An index that is proportional to stomatal conductance was compared with stomatal measurements with a porometer. The advantages and disadvantages of a possible new approach to the use of thermal imagery for the detection of stomatal closure in grapevine canopies, based on an analysis of the temperature of shaded leaves, rather than sunlit leaves, are discussed. Evidence is presented that the temperature of reference surfaces exposed within the canopy can be affected by the canopy water status.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 12/2002; 53(378):2249-60. · 5.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wild-type Arabidopsis leaf epicuticular wax (EW) occurs as a smooth layer over the epidermal surface, whereas stem EW has a crystalline microstructure. Wild-type EW load was more than 10-fold lower on leaves than on stems. Compared with the EW on wild-type stems, EW on wild-type leaves had a much higher proportion of their total EW load in the form of alkanes and 1-alcohols; a large reduction in secondary alcohols, ketones, and esters; and a chain-length distribution for major EW classes that was skewed toward longer lengths. The eceriferum (cer) mutations often differentially affected leaf and stem EW chemical compositions. For example, the cer2 mutant EW phenotype was expressed on the stem but not on the leaf. Compared to wild type, the amount of primary alcohols on cer9 mutants was reduced on leaves but elevated on stems, whereas an opposite differential effect for primary alcohols was observed on cer16 leaves and stems. Putative functions for CER gene products are discussed. The CER4 and CER6 gene products may be involved in fatty aldehyde reduction and C26 fatty acylcoenzyme A elongation, respectively. CER1, CER8, CER9, and CER16 gene products may be involved in EW substrate transfer. The CER3 gene product may be involved in release of fatty acids from elongase complexes. CER2 gene product may have regulatory functions.
    Plant physiology 06/1995; 108(1):369-377. · 7.39 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014