Seeing 'cool' and 'hot' - Infrared thermography as a tool for non-invasive, high-throughput screening of Arabidopsis guard cell signalling mutants

Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.53). 06/2004; 55(400):1187-93. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erh135
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of Arabidopsis mutants defective in abscisic acid (ABA) perception has been instrumental in the understanding of stomatal function, in particular, ABA signalling in guard cells. The considerable attention devoted to ABA signalling in guard cells is due in part to (1) the fundamental role of ABA in drought stress and (2) the use of a screening protocol based on the sensitivity of seed germination to ABA. Such a screen has facilitated the isolation of ABA signalling mutants with genetic lesions that exert pleiotropic effects at the whole plant level. As such, there is a requirement for new approaches to complement the seed germination screen. The recent advances made in the use of infrared thermography as a non-invasive, high-throughput tool are reviewed here and the versatility of this technique for screening Arabidopsis defective in stomatal regulation is highlighted.

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Available from: Alistair Hetherington, Sep 25, 2015
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    • "DIT allows the visualization of differences in surface temperature by detecting emitted infrared radiation and provides non-destructive monitoring and presymptomatic diagnosis of abiotic stress and early disease detection. The method has been used to study spatial and temporal variation in stomatal conductance [19e21], characterize water status [22] [23], dynamically analyze water stress under different irrigation treatments [24], screen mutants for stomatal regulation [25], and assess plantepathogen interactions [26e28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fusarium wilt is a major disease that causes severe losses in crop yield. Fusaric acid (FA), a non-specific fungal toxin produced by many Fusarium species, can accelerate the wilting of many crops. Unraveling the role of FA in the wilt process can enrich the understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis. To investigate the dynamic process of the cucumber's response to FA, we used digital infrared thermography (DIT) to detect leaf temperature during the alternation of light and dark conditions in greenhouse hydroponic experiments. During FA treatment, we found that the leaf temperature of cucumber plants increased when stomata closure was induced by FA. Under the alternation of light and dark, FA-treated plants had a higher leaf temperature in the light and a lower temperature in the dark, when compared to untreated plants. To confirm the uncontrolled water loss was from damaged leaf cells, as a result of FA treatment, and not from the stomata, an experiment was conducted using a split-root system in which spatially separated cucumber roots were each supplied 0 ppm or 100 ppm of FA. In the split-root system, the low temperature areas of the leaves in the dark had a higher FA concentration and more severe membrane injury than the high temperature areas, demonstrating that FA is primary xylem transported. We concluded that membrane injury caused by FA led to non-stomata water loss and, ultimately, to wilting. Combining the response of the leaves under the light and dark conditions with the DIT employed in the present study permitted noninvasive monitoring and direct visualization of wilting development.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2013; 66C:68-76. DOI:10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.02.004 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "DIT is used for non-destructive monitoring and presymptomatic diagnosis of abiotic stress or early disease detection. It has been used to study spatial and temporal variation in stomatal conductance [6], characterize water status [7] [8], conduct dynamic analysis of water stress under different irrigation methods [9] [10], observe ice nucleation and propagation in plants [11e13], screen for stomata regulation mutants [14] [15], and assess plantepathogen interactions [5] [16] [17]. Plant infection may be detected only when visible symptoms appear or when pathogens have been identified, this is often too late to prevent disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 10/2012; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.09.015 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Jones et al. (1999) also reported that stomatal conductance calculated from thermographic measurements correlated well with estimates obtained from a diffusion porometer. Recently, infrared thermography was successfully used as an effective non-contact, high throughput tool for screening large populations of Arabidopsis to identify mutants exhibiting leaf temperatures that differed from wild-type plants (Merlot et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2003; Song et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2008). Verslues et al. (2006) and Price et al. (2002) reported that the use of infrared thermal imaging to study energy balance and stomatal function provided the opportunity to advance a more holistic understanding of physical and biochemical processes related to water use and drought tolerance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf temperature has been shown to vary when plants are subjected to water stress conditions. Recent advances in infrared thermography have increased the probability of recording drought tolerant responses more accurately. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of drought on leaf temperature using infrared thermography. Furthermore, the genomic regions responsible for the expression of leaf temperature variation in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) were explored. The maize inbred lines Zong3 and 87-1 were evaluated using infrared thermography and exhibited notable differences in leaf temperature response to water stress. Correlation analysis indicated that leaf temperature response to water stress played an integral role in maize biomass accumulation. Additionally, a mapping population of 187 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Zong3 and 87-1 was constructed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for physiological traits associated with seedling water stress. Leaf temperature differences (LTD) and the drought tolerance index (DTI) of shoot fresh weight (SFW) and shoot dry weight (SDW) were the traits evaluated for QTL analysis in maize seedlings. A total of nine QTL were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM) for the three traits (LTD, RSFW and RSDW). Two co-locations responsible for both RSFW and RSDW were detected on chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively, which showed common signs with their trait correlations. Another co-location was detected on chromosome 9 between LTD and shoot biomass, which provided genetic evidence that leaf temperature affects biomass accumulation. Additionally, the utility of a thermography system for drought tolerance breeding in maize was discussed.
    Environmental and Experimental Botany 06/2011; 71(2):158-165. DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.11.010 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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