Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin versus mitomycin C in superficial bladder cancer: formal meta-analysis of comparative studies on tumor progression.
ABSTRACT To compare the therapeutic efficacy of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) with mitomycin C (MMC) on progression of Stage Ta and T1 bladder carcinoma.
Combined published and unpublished data from comparative studies on BCG versus MMC in superficial bladder carcinoma were analyzed, considering possible confounding factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as the primary effect size estimate. Tumor progression was defined as progression to a higher tumor stage or the development of metastatic disease.
In nine eligible clinical trials, 1277 patients were treated with BCG and 1133 with MMC. Within the overall median follow-up of 26 months, 7.67% of the patients in the BCG group and 9.44% of the patients in the MMC group developed tumor progression. In all nine individual studies and in the combined results, no statistically significant difference in the ORs for progression between the BCG and MMC-treated groups was found (combined OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.03; P = 0.081). In the subgroup with BCG maintenance, the combined result of the five individual studies showed a statistically significant superiority of BCG over MMC (OR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.94; P = 0.02). In the four studies without BCG maintenance, the combined result indicated no statistically significant difference between the two treatments (OR = 1.16; 95% CI 0.65 to 2.07; P = 0.612). Potential confounders, such as tumor risk status, duration of follow-up, BCG strain, BCG and MMC treatment regimen, and year of publication did not significantly influence these results.
The results demonstrated statistically significant superiority for BCG compared with MMC for the prevention of tumor progression only if BCG maintenance therapy was provided.
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ABSTRACT: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is considered the most effective treatment to reduce recurrence and progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) but can induce local side effects leading to treatment discontinuation or interruption. Aim of this exploratory study is to investigate if the sequential administration of Hyaluronic acid (HA) may reduce local side effects of BCG.BMC Urology 08/2014; 14(1):64. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BCG is a widely used vaccine worldwide for neonates including Pakistan. BCG has more than 90% coverage through the EPI program which was introduced in 1965 in Pakistan. BCG has limited efficacy against the transmissible form of pulmonary tuberculosis in high TB endemic countries. However, BCG vaccination continues in these countries because BCG confers protection against the disseminated form of TB in children. BCG has also shown some protection against leprosy and certain forms of cancers. One reason for such nonspecific protection may be that BCG activates APCs via PAMPS that interacts with TLRs (2, 4 & 8), which initiate the inflammatory cascade thereby recruiting inflammatory cells to the site of infection and providing maturation signals for neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Such activation may be crucial for restricting the infection at the initial site. Furthermore, activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade also results in expression of adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules as well as MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules engage CD4+ cells via the TCR receptor while the adhesion and costimulatory molecules bind to their respective receptors on CD4+ T cells for additional high affinity binding for T cell activation. Although activation of the innate arm may not provide subsequent memory, activation of T cells may introduce a certain level of memory response and therefore, may form a rational basis for BCG immunotherapy. This review, therefore, focuses on the immune activation related to both the innate and adaptive arm of the immune response that has been reported and further explores the utility of BCG immunotherapy related to non TB conditions.trials in vaccinology. 09/2014; 3:143-149.
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ABSTRACT: In this report, updated guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder are resented. They are categorized according the stage of the disease using the TNM staging system 7(th) edition. The recommendations are presented with supporting level of evidence.Urology Annals 10/2014; 6(4):273-7.