Vitamin A supplementation and genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among HIV-1-infected women: a randomized clinical trial.
ABSTRACT Cross-sectional analyses have associated vitamin A deficiency with genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women. A randomized clinical trial of vitamin A supplementation given daily for 6 weeks was conducted among 376 women in Mombasa, Kenya, who were coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1. At follow-up, there was no significant difference in the detection of genital HSV DNA between women receiving vitamin A supplementation and women receiving placebo (40% vs. 44%, respectively; P = .5) Among women shedding HSV, there was no significant difference in the mean HSV DNA quantity between the group that received vitamin A supplementation and the group that received placebo (4.51 vs. 4.67 log10 copies/swab; P = .6). HSV shedding was associated with significantly higher vaginal and cervical HIV-1 shedding, even after controlling for the plasma HIV-1 load and the CD4 count. Vitamin A supplementation is unlikely to decrease HSV shedding and infectivity.
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ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV2) infection increases HIV transmission. We explore the impact of a potential prophylactic HSV2 vaccination on HIV incidence in Africa using STDSIM an individual-based model. A campaign that achieved 70% coverage over 5 years with a vaccine that reduced susceptibility to HSV2 acquisition and HSV2 reactivation by 75% for 10 years, reduced HIV incidence by 30-40% after 20 years (range 4-66%). Over 20 years, in most scenarios fewer than 100 vaccinations were required to avert one HIV infection. HSV2 vaccines could have a substantial impact on HIV incidence. Intensified efforts are needed to develop an effective HSV2 vaccine.Vaccine 02/2009; 27(6):940-6. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.074 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin A supplementation to preschool children is known to decrease the risks of mortality and morbidity from some forms of diarrhea, measles, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and malaria. These effects are likely to be the result of the actions of vitamin A on immunity. Some of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of vitamin A have been described in clinical trials and can be correlated with clinical outcomes of supplementation. The effects on morbidity from measles are related to enhanced antibody production and lymphocyte proliferation. Benefits for severe diarrhea could be attributable to the functions of vitamin A in sustaining the integrity of mucosal epithelia in the gut, whereas positive effects among HIV-infected children could also be related to increased T-cell lymphopoiesis. There is no conclusive evidence for a direct effect of vitamin A supplementation on cytokine production or lymphocyte activation. Under certain circumstances, vitamin A supplementation to infants has the potential to improve the antibody response to some vaccines, including tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and measles. There is limited research on the effects of vitamin A supplementation to adults and the elderly on their immune function; currently available data provide no consistent evidence for beneficial effects. Additional studies with these age groups are needed.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 08/2005; 18(3):446-64. DOI:10.1128/CMR.18.3.446-464.2005 · 16.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The accuracy and usefulness of laboratory-developed real-time PCR procedures using a Light Cycler instrument (Roche Diagnostics) for detecting and quantifying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA as well as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)/HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal secretions from women coinfected with HIV and HSV were evaluated. For HIV-1, the use of the NEC152 and NEC131 primer set and the NEC-LTR probe in the long terminal repeat gene allowed us to detect accurately the majority of HIV-1 subtypes of group M circulating in sub-Saharan Africa, including subtypes A, B, C, D, and G as well as circulating recombinant forms 02 and 11. The detection threshold of real-time PCR for HIV in cervicovaginal lavage samples was 5 copies per assay for both RNA and DNA; the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of C(T) values were 1.30% and 0.69% (HIV-1 RNA) and 1.84% and 0.67% (HIV-1 DNA), respectively. Real-time PCR for HSV using primers and probe targeting the HSV DNA polymerase gene allowed both detection and quantification of HSV DNA and also differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 genotypes. The detection threshold of real-time PCR for HSV was 5 copies per assay; the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of C(T) values were 0.96% and 1.49%, respectively. Both manual and automated silica-based procedures were appropriate for combined extraction of HIV and HSV genomes from female genital secretions. Taken together, these findings indicate that real-time PCR may be used as a unique nucleic acid amplification procedure to detect and quantify HIV and HSV genomes in cervicovaginal secretions and thus to assess at reduced costs the genital shedding of both viruses in women included in intervention studies.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2006; 44(2):423-32. DOI:10.1128/JCM.44.2.423-432.2006 · 4.23 Impact Factor