Prevalence of cognitive disorders differs as a function of age in HIV virus infection. AIDS

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 5.55). 02/2004; 18 Suppl 1(Supplement 1):S11-8. DOI: 10.1097/00002030-200401001-00003
Source: PubMed


Ten per cent of all new cases of AIDS in the United States are in persons older than 50 years. This is particularly problematical in the case of the neuropsychiatric consequences of HIV, because there are neuropsychiatric disorders which become common in older individuals in the absence of HIV. The purpose of this report is to describe the prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals enrolled in a community-based study.
The study consisted of community-based, sentinel survey physician referrals of HIV-infected patients, with volunteer recruitment of risk-appropriate seronegative controls. One-year longitudinal follow-up study.
Detailed neuropsychiatric evaluations were performed at study entry and after one year. A brief, interim visit tracked incident change. Each subject's neuropsychological test performance was classified as normal, demented, or cognitive impairment (not demented).
The prevalence of cognitive disorder among HIV-positive individuals over 50 years was significantly greater than in individuals younger than 50 years. Among older participants, dementia was the more common classification (23%), whereas among younger participants, a milder form of cognitive impairment was more prevalent (22%). Alcohol abuse/dependence was a significant risk factor for a disorder, whereas greater education was a protective factor. The one-year incidence of disorder in the sample overall was low (7.3%), and age was not a significant risk factor. However, HIV viral load at study entry was significantly higher among those participants who had developed cognitive impairment one year later.
Age is a significant risk modifier for prevalent neuropsychological disorder.

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    • "This is important because of the increasing evidence of the progressive breakdown in neuronal networks during the course of progressive neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Zamrini et al. 2011). In the context of HIV disease, not only is it possible to identify HIV-infected individuals based on the pattern of neuronal networks, but also network abnormalities " normalize " in the face of effective antiretroviral therapy (Sacktor et al. 1999; Becker et al. 2012b; Cysique et al. 2004; Sacktor et al. 2001). Thus, the finding that IIV d is not particularly well Fig. 2 Results of regression-based analyses of the relationships among outcome and predictor variables. "
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the relationship between dispersion-based intra-individual variability (IIVd) in neuropsychological test performance and brain volume among HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine the effects of cardiovascular risk and HIV infection on this relationship. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data from 147 men age 50 and over, including 80 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 67 seronegative controls (HIV-) in this cross-sectional cohort study. Voxel Based Morphometry was used to derive volumetric measurements at the level of the individual voxel. These brain structure maps were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). IIVd was measured by computing intra-individual standard deviations (ISD's) from the standardized performance scores of five neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Memory Scale-III Visual Reproduction I and II, Logical Memory I and II, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Letter Number Sequencing. Total gray matter (GM) volume was inversely associated with IIVd. Among all subjects, IIVd -related GM atrophy was observed primarily in: 1) the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left inferior temporal gyrus extending to the supramarginal gyrus, spanning the lateral sulcus; 2) the right superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus; and, 3) dorsal/ventral regions of the posterior section of the transverse temporal gyrus. HIV status, biological, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) variables were not linked to IIVd -related GM atrophy. IIVd in neuropsychological test performance may be a sensitive marker of cortical integrity in older adults, regardless of HIV infection status or CVD risk factors, and degree of intra-individual variability links with volume loss in specific cortical regions; independent of mean-level performance on neuropsychological tests.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11682-015-9441-1 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Resulting neurocognitive impairment has been shown to affect up to 52% of people living with HIV [7,8]. There also appears to be an age effect of neurocognitive impairment, with a larger proportion of those affected aged 50 years and over [9]. Criteria for HAND were established by the American Academy of Neurology and include three conditions: Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI), Mild Neurocognitive Impairment (MNI) and HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD) [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Research investigating HIV, neurocognition and ageing is well developed using neuropsychometric or other quantitative approaches; however, little is known about individuals’ subjective experiences. The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of men aged 50 and older who self-identify as having HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. In particular, this study uses the Episodic Disability Framework (EDF) to explore participants’ perceptions regarding: 1) symptoms/impairments, difficulties with day-to-day activities, challenges with social inclusion and uncertainty; 2) ageing as related to their HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges, and 3) the episodic nature of their HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 12 men aged 50 years and older who self-identified as having HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Participants were recruited from a neurobehavioural research unit (NBRU) at a large hospital in Toronto, Canada. Data were analyzed thematically and with reference to the EDF. Results Participants’ experiences reflected all concepts within the EDF to some extent. Difficulties with daily activities were diverse but were addressed using similar living strategies. Participants described challenges with work and social relationships resulting from neurocognitive challenges. Participants downplayed the significance of uncertainty in their lives, which they attributed to effective living strategies. Most men reported confusion regarding the link between their neurocognitive challenges and ageing. Others discussed ageing as an asset that helped with coping. Conclusions This is the first study to use a disability framework to examine the subjective experiences of men ageing with HIV-associated neurocognitive challenges. Findings reframe the episodic disability experienced by these individuals as being predictably linked to certain triggers. As such, support for managing neurocognitive challenges could focus on triggers that exacerbate the condition in addition to the impairments themselves. The study also describes ageing as not only a source of problems but also as an asset among men growing older with HIV.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 07/2013; 16(1):18506. DOI:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18506 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Although the prevalence of PHD in HIV has been reported to range from 12% - 56% using a range of neuropsychiatric batteries [12-14], sub-Saharan Africa contributes very little to this body of knowledge. This study attempts to address this problem. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The HIV/AIDS infection is common in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with psychological and neuro- cognitive impairment. These conditions, however, remain largely unrecognized. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of probable HIV dementia (PHD) in an HIV clinic population in Uganda and to delineate the factors associated with such impairment in these HIV positive individuals. Methods Six hundred eighty HIV clinic attendees were surveyed in a cross sectional study. PHD was assessed using the International Dementia Scale (IHDS). Standardized measures were also used to assess clinical, psychological, social and demographic variables. Respondents were aged 18 years and above and did not have severe physical or mental health conditions. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between PHD and various factors. Results The prevalence of probable HIV dementia was 64.4%. PHD was significantly associated with increasing stress scores and psychosocial impairment but not with age, BMI, CD4 count, use of HAART, or a diagnosis of depression or alcohol dependence. Conclusion The prevalence of probable HIV dementia in an ambulatory adult HIV positive population in Uganda was 64.4%. Increasing stress scores and psychosocial impairment were significant contributing factors. Clinicians need to be aware of this and to make efforts to identify neuro-cognitive impairment. Secondly there is need for more studies to better understand the relationship between PHD and stress in HIV populations so as to inform patient care.
    BMC Psychiatry 05/2013; 13(1):126. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-13-126 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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