HIV-1 disease progression and fertility: the incidence of recognized pregnancy and pregnancy outcome in Uganda.
ABSTRACT To estimate the association between HIV disease progression and the incidence of recognized pregnancy; to estimate the risk of subsequent fetal loss.
A total of 191 women (92 HIV seropositive and 99 HIV seronegative at enrolment) aged 15-49 years in an HIV clinical cohort were invited to attend routine clinic visits every 3 months. Information on HIV progression collected at the visit was related to whether there was a pregnancy beginning in the following 3 months. Visits were excluded where the woman was already pregnant, lactating, using modern contraceptives or if there was inadequate follow-up.
There were 2524 eligible visits and 216 recognized pregnancies. The reported frequency of sexual intercourse diminished with advancing HIV disease. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for pregnancy when the woman was in WHO stage 1 compared with HIV seronegatives was 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.93]; stage 2, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.25-0.91); stage 3, 0.43 (95% CI, 0.25-0.74); and stage 4, (AIDS) 0.14 (95% CI, 0.02-1.09). The findings were similar for CD4 cell count, time from seroconversion and time before AIDS. There was an increase in fetal loss from the early stages of HIV infection (adjusted OR for stage 1, 5.38; 95% CI, 1.57-18.44), there were very few recognized pregnancies in the advanced stages.
Fertility is reduced from the earliest asymptomatic stage of HIV infection resulting from both a reduced incidence of recognized pregnancy and increased fetal loss. The greatest reduction in fertility was observed following progression to AIDS when there was a very low incidence of recognized pregnancies.
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ABSTRACT: HIV-positive women of reproductive age face challenges in decision making related to pregnancy. Understanding factors influencing repeat pregnancies in women with known HIV status are necessary to guide interventions and counseling strategies to better inform and support them. We compared three groups of women attending a large antenatal clinic in Pune, India. They include: Group A--63 HIV-positive women coming for care for a repeat pregnancy after being diagnosed in a previous pregnancy; Group B--64 HIV-negative (repeat) pregnant women attending this antenatal clinic; and Group C--63 HIV-positive non-pregnant women currently enrolled in an ongoing clinical trial. Comparisons of Group A and B indicate that the likelihood of unplanned repeat pregnancies was significantly higher in HIV-positive (70%) than HIV-negative (36%) women (OR=4.1, CI: 2.0-8.7). Inability to terminate the pregnancy (31%) and familial obligations (40%) appear to be important for continuing the unplanned repeat pregnancy. Despite high reported contraceptive use by HIV-positive women, pregnancies still occurred. Death of their youngest child is an important factor as 21% of HIV-positive pregnant women lost their youngest child compared with 3% of HIV-negative women and 3% of HIV-positive non-pregnant women (p<0.001). Repeat pregnancies were more likely to occur for women who did not disclose their HIV status to their spouse. Thus the majority of the repeat pregnancies for HIV-positive women were both unplanned and unwanted.AIDS Care 07/2008; 20(9):1111-8. DOI:10.1080/09540120701842753 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since 2001, French law has permitted the use of assisted reproductive technology in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected women under strict conditions. This report describes a preliminary series of seropositive women who underwent assisted reproduction treatment at our facility. To minimize contamination of culture media, equipment, and therefore of male gametes and embryos, we chose to perform ICSI in all cases. The outcome of ICSI was compared with the outcome in an age-matched group of non-HIV-1-infected women. Since several previous reports have indicated that HIV infection may be associated with a decrease in spontaneous fertility, our goal was also to assess the fertility status of the HIV-1-infected women entering our ICSI programme. The French law governing the use of assisted reproduction protocols in HIV-1-infected women was strictly applied. The inclusion criteria were absence of ongoing disease, CD4((+)) count >200 cells/mm(3), and stable HIV-1 RNA level. Since mean age at the time of ICSI was higher in HIV-1-infected women than in the overall group of non-HIV-infected women, we compared outcome data in HIV-1-infected women (group I) to a group of non-HIV-1-infected women matched with regard to age and follicle retrieval period (group II) as well as to the overall group of women who underwent ICSI at our institution (group III). A total of 66 ovarian stimulations was performed in 29 HIV-1-infected-infected women. The percentage of cancelled cycles was higher in infected women than in matched controls (15.2 versus 4.9%, P < 0.05). The duration of ovarian stimulation (13.3 versus 11.7 days, P < 0.05) and amount of recombinant FSH injected (2898 versus 2429 IU, P < 0.001) were also higher in infected women. The number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, and embryos obtained as well as embryo quality was similar in all groups. The fertilization rate was higher in infected women than in matched controls (67 versus 60%, P < 0.01). The pregnancy rate was not significantly different between groups I and II (16.1 versus 19.6%) in spite of the fact that the number of embryos transferred was purposefully restricted in the HIV-1-infected group to minimize multiple pregnancy (2.0 versus 2.4, not significant). The results of this preliminary series of ICSI cycles in HIV-1-infected women indicate that optimal ovarian stimulation is slightly more difficult to achieve than in matched seronegative women. However, when criteria for oocyte retrieval were fulfilled, ICSI results were similar to those of age-matched controls.Human Reproduction 10/2005; 20(10):2838-43. DOI:10.1093/humrep/dei119 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SummaryIn India, nearly one million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV. This study sought to examine the biological effect of HIV on the fertility of HIV-infected Indian women. This is relevant for the provision of pregnancy-related counselling and care to the infected women, and for estimating the HIV prevalence among women and children. The study used retrospectively collected data from the National Family Health Survey (2005-2006) and applied a matched case control study design to compare the effect of HIV on conception, pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected (N=69) and HIV-non-infected (N=345) women, both unaware of their HIV status. Pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes were compared through non-parametric statistical tests, whereas the effect of HIV on fecundity was studied by analysing the interval between last two pregnancies using Cox regression. The pregnancy rate was observed to be lower among HIV-infected than HIV-non-infected women (RR=0.77). The difference, however, was not statistically significant (p=0.064). There was also no statistically significant difference in the interval between last two pregnancies (p=0.898). Significantly higher number of pregnancies among HIV-infected women resulted in termination because of miscarriage or stillbirths (p=0.004). Therefore, while providing clinical care and counselling to infected women, the possibility of adverse pregnancy outcomes should be considered. Due to the higher rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes, attendance of HIV-infected women at antenatal clinics might be greater, which could lead to overestimation of HIV prevalence derived from antenatal care surveillance sites.Journal of Biosocial Science 10/2010; 43(1):1-11. DOI:10.1017/S0021932010000568 · 0.98 Impact Factor