The etiology of different forms of urticaria in childhood.
ABSTRACT Urticaria is a common disease in children. In contrast to the ease of its diagnosis, etiologic factors are often difficult to determine. In order to study whether differences exist among various forms of urticaria in childhood and whether the patterns of different types of urticaria differ between adults and children, we extensively studied the possible causes of urticaria in children. Fifty-four children (23 girls and 31 boys; ages 1-19 years) with various forms of urticaria were included in the study. In all cases, questions about food allergies, food additive intolerance, drug intake, signs of infection, causes of physical urticaria, insect bites, and personal and family history of atopy were asked. Clinical characteristics of the disease, such as duration, recurrence, and associated angioedema and symptoms of anaphylaxis were also investigated. Detailed laboratory tests, including serologic, autoimmune, and allergic analyses, were conducted to reveal the probable etiologies of urticaria. Of the study patients, 68.5% and 31.5% were diagnosed as having acute and chronic urticaria, respectively. The patient group with chronic urticaria was older and included more boys than the acute group. In the acute urticaria group, infection was the most frequently documented cause (48.6%), followed by drugs (5.4%), and food allergies (2.7%), whereas in chronic urticaria, physical factors were the leading cause (52.94%). The most frequently documented infection was urinary tract infection, followed by serologically determined infections of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori. In this study we found indications that infections were frequently associated with urticaria, which suggests that urticaria management should include a survey of certain infectious agents in addition to a detailed history.
Article: Acute Urticaria.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute urticaria is a common condition, which presents in all age groups and to multiple specialties. It may be a presenting symptom of anaphylaxis. The following article describes the epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, investigations, management, and prognosis of acute urticaria. Contact urticaria and angioedema without urticarial weals are not covered, as these are described elsewhere in this issue.Immunology and allergy clinics of North America 02/2014; 34(1):11-21. · 3.18 Impact Factor
Article: Pediatric Urticaria.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although urticaria is not a life-threatening disease, its impact on quality of life in children should not be overlooked. A systematic search of online databases, including Medline, was performed to inform a review aiming to equip clinicians with an evidence-based approach to all aspects of pediatric urticaria. This review hinges on an illustrative case and includes a summary table of studies pertaining to disease management in children. The multiple issues faced by patients, their families, and treating clinicians are highlighted, and the current literature on the presentation, natural history, investigation, and management of this poorly understood condition is assessed.Immunology and allergy clinics of North America 02/2014; 34(1):117-139. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Urticaria affects individuals of all ages and is commonplace. Nearly 1 in 5 individuals will experience an episode of urticaria in their lifetime, while the chronic form of disease has an estimated annual prevalence of approximately 1% of the population. Given the similarity of chronic urticaria symptoms to those seen in patients suffering an allergic reaction, the condition often leads to a search for an external cause. In most cases, no external trigger factor is identified. At present several theories of pathogenesis exist, none of which is firmly established.Immunology and allergy clinics of North America 02/2014; 34(1):33-52. · 3.18 Impact Factor