LGI1 mutations in temporal lobe epilepsies.
ABSTRACT A number of familial temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) have been recently recognized. Mutations in LGI1 (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 gene) have been found in a few families with the syndrome of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). The authors aimed to determine the spectrum of TLE phenotypes with LGI1 mutations, to study the frequency of mutations in ADPEAF, and to examine the role of LGI1 paralogs in ADPEAF without LGI1 mutations.
The authors performed a clinical and molecular analysis on 75 pedigrees comprising 54 with a variety of familial epilepsies associated with TLE and 21 sporadic TLE cases. All were studied for mutations in LGI1. ADPEAF families negative for LGI1 mutations were screened for mutations in LGI2, LGI3, and LGI4.
Four families had ADPEAF, 22 had mesial TLE, 11 had TLE with febrile seizures, two had TLE with developmental abnormalities, and 15 had various other TLE syndromes. LGI1 mutations were found in two of four ADPEAF families, but in none of the other 50 families nor in the 21 individuals with sporadic TLE. The mutations were novel missense mutations in exons 1 (c.124T-->G; C42G) and 8 (c.1418C-->T; S473L). No mutations in LGI2, LGI3, or LGI4 were found in the other two ADPEAF families.
In TLE, mutations in LGI1 are specific for ADPEAF but do not occur in all families. ADPEAF is genetically heterogeneous, but mutations in LGI2, LGI3, or LGI4 did not account for families without LGI1 mutations.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In relatively small series, autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) has been associated with leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) mutations in about 50% of the families, this genetic heterogeneity being probably caused by differences in the clinical characteristics of the families. In this article we report the overall clinical and genetic spectrum of ADLTE in Italy with the aim to provide new insight into its nosology and genetic basis. METHODS: In a collaborative study of the Commission of Genetics of the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE) encompassing a 10-year period (2000-2010), we collected 33 ADLTE families, selected on the basis of the following criteria: presence of at least two members concordant for unprovoked partial seizures with prominent auditory and or aphasic symptoms, absence of any known structural brain pathology or etiology, and normal neurologic examination. The clinical, neurophysiologic, and neuroradiologic findings of all patients were analyzed and a genealogic tree was built for each pedigree. The probands' DNA was tested for LGI1 mutations by direct sequencing and, if negative, were genotyped with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to search for disease-linked copy-number variation CNV. The disease penetrance in mutated and nonmutated families was assessed as a proportion of obligate carriers who were affected. KEY FINDINGS: The 33 families included a total of 127 affected individuals (61 male, 66 female, 22 deceased). The age at onset ranged between 2 and 60 years (mean 18.7 years). Ninety-one patients (72%) had clear-cut focal (elementary, complex, or secondarily generalized) seizures, characterized by prominent auditory auras in 68% of the cases. Other symptoms included complex visual hallucinations, vertigo, and déjà vu. Aphasic seizures, associated or not with auditory features, were observed in 20% of the cases, whereas tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 86% of the overall series. Sudden noises could precipitate the seizures in about 20% of cases. Seizures, which usually occurred at a low frequency, were promptly controlled or markedly improved by antiepileptic treatment in the majority of patients. The interictal electroencephalography (EEG) studies showed the epileptiform temporal abnormalities in 62% of cases, with a slight predominance over the left region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) scans were negative. LGI1 mutations (missense in nine and a microdeletion in one) were found in only 10 families (30%). The patients belonging to the mutated and not mutated groups did not differ except for penetrance estimate, which was 61.3% and 35% in the two groups, respectively (chi-square, p = 0.017). In addition, the disease risk of members of families with mutations in LGI1 was three times higher than that of members of LGI1-negative families (odds ratio [OR] 2.94, confidence interval [CI] 1.2-7.21). SIGNIFICANCE: A large number of ADLTE families has been collected over a 10-year period in Italy, showing a typical and homogeneous phenotype. LGI1 mutations have been found in only one third of families, clinically indistinguishable from nonmutated pedigrees. The estimate of penetrance and OR, however, demonstrates a significantly lower penetrance rate and relative disease risk in non-LGI1-mutated families compared with LGI1-mutated pedigrees, suggesting that a complex inheritance pattern may underlie a proportion of these families.Epilepsia 04/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review concentrates on the evidence for autoantibodies to cell surface synaptic proteins in psychosis and schizophrenia. We and others have recently found antibodies to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in first-episode psychosis. We describe the evidence for pathogenicity and disease-relevance of these antibodies, which builds on the novel field in neuroimmunology of cell surface antibody-associated central nervous system disorders. Relevant autoantibodies in psychosis and schizophrenia are likely to be those directed to cell surface proteins, in which the likelihood of pathogenicity is greater. We discuss the evidence for this from the field of paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes and the discovery of novel cell surface antigen central nervous system autoimmune syndromes.Biological psychiatry 08/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 gene (LGI1) mutation inducing an amino acid sequence substitution was found in a Korean family with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). We report the clinical features and characteristics of this newly identified LGI1 mutation. Clinical data were collected from a large ADLTE family. All exons and flanking regions of the LGI1 gene were directly sequenced. 243 healthy controls were screened for the putative mutation. The 'Sorting Tolerant From Intolerant' algorithm was employed for the prediction of mutated LGI1 protein stability. LGI1 protein secretion was confirmed in vitro by immunoblotting assay. The main clinical characteristics included a young age at onset (mean, 12.4 years), diverse phenotypic manifestations, the occurrence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and a favorable prognosis. The genetic analysis detected a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism of c.137G>T coding for p.C46F in the five affected family members. This variant was not found in the normal control population and one unaffected family member. All the amino acids substituted for cysteine at position 46 of the LGI1 protein were predicted to damage protein stability in in silico analysis. Mutated C46F protein was retained within the cell at the immunoblotting assay. We identified a new LGI1 mutation in a large Korean ADLTE family which appeared to be involved in the development of epilepsy through suppressing LGI1 protein secretion.Seizure 10/2013; · 2.00 Impact Factor